“Azadi tower” that before the revolution called “Shahyad tower” is one of the symbols of Tehran city that was made in 1970, by architect Hossein Amanat. Azadi tower is the symbol of “Modern Iran” and it is for the commemorate of 2500 imperial of Iran. It was designed and built in the middle of one of Tehran’s main squares in the west of this city with the name of “Shahyad square”. The architecture of tower is consolidated of Achaemenid architecture, Sassanid architecture, and Islamic architecture. In the area underneath the tower, there are located multiple show hall, gallery, library, and museum.
History of Azadi Tower
The history of Azadi tower is back to 1966. In this year the plan of a recognizable symbol of Iran was the contest between Iranian architectures, and at the end, the design of the architect Hossein Amanat, with 24 years old age and the graduated from the faculty of fine arts of the Tehran university was the winner and chosen for the construction. The construction operation of The Azadi tower was beginning on the 2nd of November of 1969, and after 28 months work, in the 1 of January of 1972, became operational with the name of “Shahyad tower”. In celebration of the opening of this tower, that is located in the West of Tehran, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi king of Iran and his wife Farah Pahlavi were attended and Cyrus Charter of Human Rights ( The first written human rights of Cyrus the Great, the Achaemenid king) was unveiled for the first time in this place. During the Iranian Revolution 1357 (1979) communities were established in the field and after revolution victory, the name of this tower was changed from “shahyad” to “ Azadi”.
The architecture of Azadi tower is the fusion of architecture Achaemenid era, Sassanid and Islamic period. This building is consists of three floors, has four lifts, two staircases, and 286 Stairway. There are located in the lower area of Azadi tower multiple show halls, library, museum, and gallery. The length of the building is 63 meters, the height of that from the surface of the earth is 45 meters and the height of that from the surface of the museum is 5 meters. In constructing this tower used about 46000 pieces of stones.
Hossein Amanat said: “this building is intended the brilliant past history of Iran, to the duration that Iran were excelled in literature, Art, Architecture, Handicrafts, different sciences, and many other things. I wanted to show them all in this tower until everyone in every place knows that this effect is related to where and with which kinds of culture.”
“In this building, the main arch is in the middle of the tower, a symbol of the “Kasra vault” related to the pre-Islamic period “Sasanian period” and a high arch that is the failure one speak about the duration after Islam or in the Islam periods. Official constructs between two arches are very Iranian and I gave them from the many Iranian mosques. Essentially dome-building techniques in Iran are very interesting and when you go to the every mosque, you will see the new things. The dome is a sign of Iranian genius, the old architecture enters the circular dome from the square base. They do these works with the help of official and very beautiful Muqarnas Karies (One of the decorative elements of Islamic architecture and Iranian ones). Inside the tower, something as similar had happened. The geometry of the building is square rectangle geometry, that is the turn on its stool and then come to be 16 sides and at the end make the shape of one dame. Of course, you cannot see the dome from the outside but you can watch it from the inside of the tower”.
“There are two floors of the tower, one of them is above the main arch, and the other one is under the dome that you will reach them with the elevator. This floor that was designed as the exhibition covered with the white concrete dome. This dome show the Muqarnas in the new design and the height of that is more than the roof of Azadi tower and it is shown from the roof and they are covered with Iranian turquoise diaphoretic tiles. Consumption of white concrete in that time for this part and some parts of the hall was the new work for itself in Iran”.
“ This building has the stones that they are in the low part of the building with 2,3 meters lengths and 1,6 meters height and the work is in the hand of masons ”. “ These stones are attached to each other by concrete and stainless stell and in the back of them is the rough surface that they do not slide on them, but every stone near the other one grouting with the flexible material. Something like as rubber that is flexible. The material with the name of (FlEXIBLE SEALANT) flexible Sealant… if … they use cement for grouting, this makes the stone be broke because base on the weather in the summer and winter the stones come to be expanding and contracting and if the joints are not flexible, all of them are crushed. ”
The interior part of the Azadi tower
The inside figures of the tower are the fusion of tradition and modernism, especially the roof of the second floor. In the entrance of the tower, each of stone entrance doors has about 5/3 Ton weight. These rocks are made of granite. The second Tower has 2 elevator that they are going up the walls of the tower. The first elevator passes 2 floors and arrives at the cement ceiling after that you must use the second elevator. None of the ceilings is closed. Ceilings are open and have the way to the other one and higher spaces.
Square Architecture of Azadi Tower
Hossein Amanat said that: The available figures in the square that they get the shape to the garden and flowers come from the main shape of Isfahan sheikh Lotf Allah dome design but the geometry of the circle of the dome come to be oval. There is the interesting Logarithmic relationship in geometry, and dimensions of the ‘Lotf Allah dome” that it shows the deep science of Iranian architect in mathematic in the past decades. The designs of waterfalls and fountains have come from the Iranian gardens. Also the slope of the square is designed with the specific purpose, the most height of the Azadi tower is 45 meters, because it is near the Mehrabad airport and it is not possible to making it higher, but I want that when you are coming to the tower go up in the way that making it high is not possible. It means that when you are come to be near the tower from the airport you are on the slope. Then you are arriving at the circle fountain and when you are come to be close to the tower once again you go up. The ground under the tower is completely smooth. This smooth and that slope when come to be near each other making interesting arched lines.