Espand ( scientific name : ‘Peganum harmala’),is perennial herbaceous from dark Nitrariaceae .


Espand plant height is about 30 to 50 cm in length. It seems that this plant looks like the plants that have green leaves with narrow and irregular divisions. The flowers of this plant are coarse with thin Sepals and Large petals in white greenish color. Espand fruit is the capsule and it has multiple black seeds.

From thousand years ago Espand seeds are using in many different ritual cultures and spiritual world. It is especially used in ancient cultures of the Middle East.

The importance and holiness of Espand in history are full of value and some of the historians believe that the mythical plant is Espand.

Espand Flowers and specially Espand seeds are rich in alkaloids of the Beta- carboline group that they are all Monoamine oxidase inhibitor, so drink the Espand sodden in small quantities (1 to 3 grams) has the value of antidepressant and sedative and in large size (3 to 15 grams) has psychoactive for the body.

But because of the breakdown of the enzyme of monoamine oxidase in the liver by Espand alkaloids , the tyramine in food (alcohol, cheese, sausages and most protein and dairy products, fruits and fish remains, etc. )that normally break by this enzyme can be the reason of severe high blood pressure and heart rate, various headaches, shock, convulsions and even death if untreated soon. So from before 48 hours to after 48hours peoples must not use these kinds of foods that contains tyramine.

Some the others extremely dangerous interactions and fatal should be discontinued at least 2 weeks in advance:

Anti-depression pills such as Serotonin reuptake inhibitors like Citalopram, amphetamines, including ecstasy and methamphetamine (glass), cocaine, morphine.


Historical use

To protect from the evil eye in Turkey people hang dried capsules of Peganum in homes and cars. In Morocco highly use to protection from the Jen . In Syria, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Jordan and many other countries, like Iran use Espand dry seeds to protect from the eye and Strangers view put them in the fire and read a special prayer that is different in every culture and dies the smoke to themselves and the other persons in around. This tradition uses by the different persons from several religions such as Islam, Zoroastrianism, Christianity, Judaism, and Hinduism .

In some versions of prayers that are read in the time of the ceremony, they say the name of the ancient Zeostrian king Naqsha band that that first time received these names from five guardian angel named Yzdha. This tradition of burning Espand in the fire for the cleansed smoke Infiltrated to Hindi Kashmir and they use it in their wedding parties to remove darkness from bride and groom life.

In Iran and Turkey people prepared red color from the Espand and that was known as Iran red and used it to coloring wool , carpet and rug manufacturing. In fact, what made the red color to the Espand is Alkaloids that has Psychedelic properties, and to obtain such thick color that is appropriate for the coloring, high percentage of solved Alkaloids needs. With this High thick color, they can enter the body through contact with the skin and has the Psychedelic effect on the body. As past carpet weavers had directly contact with these colors so many historians believed that the stories about Flying carpets, geometric patterns, and designs on Persian rugs are from Alkaloids effect on the carpet weavers body.


Medicinal properties

In the body Monoamine, oxidase enzymes have the task to breakdown many natural molecules that people comnsumpted . One of the important molecules is indole alkaloids that is one of the most powerful psychotropics.

Btakarbvlyn alkaloids inside the Espand by inhibiting the monoamine oxidase enzyme cause that comes to be inactive psychoactive such as dimethyltryptamine that would be otherwise crushed completely by monoamine oxidase, now it can cross over into the brain without the hassle of liver and the effects of the psychotropic liver .

Espand is also causing to be prolonged and worsen the effects of the remain active alkaloids such as LSD and psilocybin.

In extracts of the traditional plants, it will use to increase milk , excretion of milk secretion, excretion of intestinal worms, treating rheumatism, increase sexual potency as well as a painkiller to went relieve stomach pain.

Roasting Espand seeds in order of someone is known as avoid the evil eye with some impressive.

In the laboratory, researches used Espand extracts to destroys microbes. Some extracts such as the result extracts Callus has the anti-microbial properties

Callus extracts have anti-microbial properties against microbes such as Staphylococcus aureus , Escherichia coli, and Candida albicans has shown.

Recently alkaloids Btakarbvlyn in plants and Espand seeds

Borage plant and savory properties that many families use it, in different ways can be Borage desire, but tail off it is customary .

One of the wonders of the Alborz mountain range that Mount Damavand is massive, that is growing several kinds of medicinal plants which have many therapeutic effects exclusively on the slopes of the mountain and they are not in the mountains of the effect of the action.

The Iranian press has already spoken of one of these plants and magical effects and wrote it stated that foreign experts have seed to other countries, but it will take hard work have failed because the plant is an only original birthplace of green .

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However, they say in the ancient books of borage “language Thawri” but in fact, it has no another kind of name.

In none part of the world except Iran Alborz mountain you cannot find this plant and other countries are going wrong and borage it is known only in Iran and there is no relation between them.

About a century it would be wrong for doctors and pharmacists and they were in misled and wiped Borage .

They confused plants with each other, their only goal is a little bit similar, they do not have any common properties and the medical interests are conflicting with each other and the size of the flowers are different .

Borage in Iran and Europe and America have a great reputation.

Traditional doctors used from Borage for a treatment of many diseases .

The new doctors knew properties of Borage that were prescribed for another batch of diseases .

Why Iranians use only borage ? medical benefits are only goals.

Borage is blue and the flowers are like pomegranate and egg circular (ring – shaped) and glazed in the Alborz mountains.

Another plant in Isfahan and some other countries, know as “Mrmakhvz” that has blue small and round flower.

Unfortunately none of the properties of Borage are not original, but instead had other interests that European researchers are beginning to realize it. As it turned out, twigs, flowers, and leaves of this plant have been some dander, urine, and sweat too much.


Let’s check out these two plants and introduce and explain their interests separately :


Original Borage

Borage plant is automotive, comes to action exclusively on the slopes of the Alborz Mountains. It is not cultivated yet and it is not tame.

Borage is nourishing of the spirit and exclusive members of the body. Strengthens the human’s five senses , or rather, eighteen senses.

This plant make stomach soft and it is open Gallbladder, make Soda mucus from the stomach burned off and ity has eliminated the effects.

Other properties of Borage is for delirium ,pleurisy, melancholy and madness drink boiled Borage along with other drugs.

Boiled borage is exhilarating, and it is open the face paint.

Another feature of Borage is that make the chest soft, and shortness of a breath and cure the sore throat.

One of the properties of borage is that it is helpful, apprehension and fear destroys and sorrow, and it is for those with low self-talk.

For shortness of breath, boiled borage honey is prescribed.


Borage properties

   The other properties of Borage are such as: chewing the fresh loaf of Borage leave is good for treatment of purulent boil inside the children mouth, Thrush and

   Loose teeth rot, treating the heat of mouth it is beneficial. It has2 to5ounces food part.

   Borage sweat is useful for sodium diseases, obsessive and suffocating.

   Borage is prevented from Cancer and it has magnesium.

   New research suggests that aqueous extracts of borage are the safe and effective drug for the treatment of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

   New research suggests that aqueous extracts of borage are the safe and effective drug for the treatment of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder .

   Borage contains mucilage, flavonoids 15/0% and the aglycones of anthocyanins and cyanidin Dlfynydyn to the 34/13 percent and small amounts of pyrrolizidine alkaloids have been right.

   Fine flowers have the white tail and purple petals. Fresh leaves contain lots of Vitamin C.

   Therefore this plant doesn’t have dandruff and it does not make lots of sweat or urine.



This plant doesn’t have Persian name and it is not clear from when we have it in Iran and planted in Tabriz. Ibn Bitar the famous old herbalist that he was Andalusian and later he come to minor Asia said Marmakhuzto this plant.

  • Flower ,twigs, and leaves of Borage has dandruff , it has the glazing materials and a bitter substance that therefore increase sweat and urine of the body.
  • This plant crushed and destroyed stone in the kidney and bladder.
  • Borage contains Omega-6 fatty acids such as linolenic acid, which is useful for arthritis.
  • A poultice of fresh and mashed leaves of Borage opens wen and it is useful for the treatment of the burn, fire, sunstroke.
  • In Iran traditional medicine it was useful for the treatment of dropsy and the patent must eat about15-20 grams of this plant when they have fast.

Therefore this plant is not good for the people with Meningitis and

Pleurisy diseases .


Harms of Borage plant:

Because Borage has Alkaloid it is not good for children and pregnant women.


First were domesticated by the Medes to feed their horses. Hey, the principle is the desert origin and right now it is cultivated in all temperatures regions of the subcontinent.

Scientific Classification of Hay

Kingdom: Plantae

Division: Magnoliophyta

Class: Magnoliopsida

Order: Fabales

Family:  Fabaceae

Subfamily: Faboideae

Tribe: Trifolieae

Genus: Medicago

Species: M. Sativa


Alfalfa is a perennial or permanent plant with straight roots and it is known as the primitive root , In parallel with the emergence of the primary root,  Hypocotyl is placed below the soil surface and with elongation in the bottom of  cotyledons cause germination and make the seed out of the soil .

Sprouts Alfalfa at this time shows particular sensitivity to too much water, water shortages, soil salinity or crusting of the soil surface .

If at this time the soil surface crust close, hay Hypocotyl arched that is below of the soil surface it cannot easily be removed from the soil if the Alfalfa split peas can be removed from the soil surface at this time germinate Alfalfa only have two cotyledon edges that the leaves seem inflated . This preliminarily simple leaves are usually heart-shaped and they don’t have similarity with original leaves of Alfalfa.

After a while, the first compound ternate leaves  of Alfalfa are emerging that gradually with continued growth and development  other citrus leaves are formed.

In addition to the Alfalfa primary straight roots, it has also lateral roots that they are come from the border cells of the of the roots of the central cylinder the factor of Alfalfa success in resistance to all adverse factors and also uses the food on the earth have a strong root system.

The height of Alfalfa is one meter and its leaves are trifoliate , they are pointed leaflets, green and oval leaves.

Alfalfa flowers are green , light purple or light blue. Alfalfa fruits such as shellfish , and fruit seeds like beans but they are smaller than beans.


Species :
• Iranian medics are as follows:
Hamadani, pitch, Yazdi, Nagorno Alfalfa, Baghdad, immigrants, Nagorno Alfalfa Khourvandeh, Herat, Afghan, Famennian
• Foreign Moapa Alfalfa – Sonora – thirty River – Skvyl – Canadian Rnjr- Masyrsa- Hardygan- torkestani.


Alfalfa Agriculture
In areas with mild winters, it is better to sowing Alfalfa early enough in autumn, The plant can be established before the cold stop it’s growing, and in areas with cold winters Alfalfa should plant in spring And its cultivation should be done soon and it must be done before the summer heat. Planting Alfalfa by seed drill is preferable than planting it by hand and the distance between rows are 140-150 cm and planting depth is consider 1-3 cm.
For the weed grass, Sauce is very dangerous and it can infect in the entire region and it can control with oil , herbicides or burning.
Alfalfa necessary water per year is approximately 1000 to 2000 mm.
Alfalfa rotation with other plants
In the rotation, Alfalfa is very useful for the pants that they will be planted after it.
For happening that it must bury when it has well performed.
If it is attacked by weeds or we are the delay in digging, it will not useful for the next plant.
Alfalfa dodder
The color of this plant is yellowish to orange. Alfalfa is the most important host. The sauce does not only make a taste of Alfalfa as a forage undesirable but it also makes it toxic in some degrees. If you do not control them from quality and quantity parts they are decrees and the life of farm come to be short. The other hosts of this sauce contain Sugar beet, Some kitchen garden vegetables, Red clover, white peas.
Gravy is usually the weeds beside that they are near fields and roads, and especially camel thorn is from this type of sauce.
Methods to combat with Alfalfa sauce
• The use of pure seed for planting alfalfa
• The use of non-polluting fertilizers sauce
• Planting alfalfa in late summer or early autumn rather than spring primary pollution of sauce undermines with the arrival of the cold season.
• High-density planting makes shadow and prevents from germination of the sauce.
• In areas where alfalfa should be planted in the spring of hot from 15-12Kylv in herbicide Detail before the emergence of alfalfa and used weeds such as sauces. In the few years, Alfalfa (from the second year onwards) you can sprayed Dental in the late winter or early spring. When you use these herbicides ground should have enough moisture to effect more on poison; so if the earth is dry you must have the farm irrigation.
• If the above precautions failed or because of the reasons they are not effective, and farm still dressing polluted spots contaminated by metal it can be abolished in the following ways: spraying a solution of 1% paraquat in the infected zone of sauce. Burning the contaminated area by a flame thrower , or similar devices. Mechanical cleansing the area from sauce, to remove parasites out of the farm.
• If the large area of the farm is contaminated by sauce it can be spray by Roundup Herbicide. The spraying should be repeated one after 10 days. In the first year of Alfalfa when it has 8 leaves.
• At the time of Alfalfa infected harvest should do before going seeds of sauce till the sauce prevents from increase the seed.
• From the second year with a delay in harvesting the Alfalfa , the shadow on the earth prevent from the grow of the sauce.
• In the time of infected and from the second arrangement, the farmer can use prsvyyt poison.


The effect of herbicides on the other Hay weeds

Review and test the effectiveness of several herbicides on weed hay has shown that the use of bent azone 3 and 2.5 liters per hectare, metribuzin 700-1000 grams per hectare has significant differences than the witness without weeding in terms of impact on weed at a statistical level. Metribuzin herbicides 1000 and 700 grams per hectare, Hallux VFP ethyl 2 liters per hectare, butyl Fluazifop 2 liters compared to the control without weeding showed significant differences in terms of impact on narrow-leaf weeds are located on one level.


Medicinal Properties
From the Iranian traditional medicine, Alfalfa is warm. The fresh Alfalfa is warm and wet and dried Alfalfa is warm and dry.
• As Alfalfa has lots of minerals so its juice is useful for the children that they are in the age of growth and they don’t have bones strong. Even today Alfalfa powder sale in the pharmacies. For preparing Alfalfa juice put300 grams of Alfalfa in one-liter water and boil them till the water decrease to half then smooth them add a little honey to them till it comes to be a syrup. For children, they can use 200 grams and for the suckling baby they can use 50 grams of this syrup in the day and they can add milk to this syrup. To increase the energy the adult people can use this syrup.
• Eat fresh Alfalfa or its bud with salad.
• alfalfa is laxative.
• Alfalfa twice as much as spinach has Iron. Therefore, it is hematopoietic and useful for those who are anemic.
• Iron is used to treat rickets disease.
• Deficiency of C vitamin is removed by eating Alfalfa.
• Vitamin C deficiency removes by eating alfalfa.
• Fresh Alfalfa in many countries such as China and Russia and America consumed a lot instead of spinach.
• You can find Alfalfa medicinal herbs in pharmacies and stores as powders, capsules, and tablets. Dosage three tablets per day.
• With all the benefits of Alfalfa, people should not indulgence in eating fresh Alfalfa because it is very flatulent and even animals that are destined to eat a lot of it may be wasted due to high gas.
• If you put boiled poultice several times in a day on the members hat they tremble they will heal.
• Brewed Alfalfa is useful for the treat of the Diarrhea.
• To soften the breasts and relieve cough drink 2-3 cups of brewed Alfalfa seeds.
• To treat tremor put Alfalfa seeds in the vinegar oil and put it under the sun for one week then smooth it and eat several spoons of it in the day and put it in the members that they have tremor.
• Alfalfa contains lots of vitamins. Crushed Alfalfa soonly treats the wound and prevent from the bleeding.


Minerals and Protein
Alfalfa is rich in A, C, E, K vitamins and also contains amylase that is an enzyme for digestion of starches.
Many enzymes are found in Alfalfa such as Amvlsyn, invertase, and Pktyaz. Alfalfa has about 20% protein, amino acids in proteins are as follow:
Lysine , arginine , histidine , adenine , phenylalanine , asparagine and cystine .
Alfalfa has phosphoric acid as well. Alfalfa also contains magnesium, iron and minor amounts of arsenic and silica , so alfalfa is very strong for humans and animals in terms of food and good nutrition.
A significant amount of A, B6, D, E, C, K vitamins and minerals
potassium, calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium are in Alfalfa.


The sea-buckthorn , is deciduous shrubs in the Elaeagnaceae family .


In ancient times, leaves and young branches of sea-buckthorn were supposedly fed as a remedy to horses to support weight gain and appearance of the coat, thus leading to the name of the genus, Hippophae derived from hippo (horse), and  phaos (shining).


Seven species are recognized that two of them probably of hybrid origin that they are  native over a wide area of  Europe and Asia.

Hippophae rhamnoides, the common sea buckthorn, in central Asia, it is more widespread in dry semi desert sites where other plants cannot survive the dry conditions. In central Europe and Asia, it is also occurs as a subalpine shrub above tree line in mountains, and other sunny areas such as river banks. They are tolerant of salt in the air and soil, but demand full sunlight for good growth and do not tolerate shady conditions near larger trees. They typically grow in dry, sandy areas.

Sea-buckthorn is where the plant used for soil, water and wildlife conservation, anti-desertification purposes and for consumer products.

Sea buckthorn hardiness zones are approximately 3 through 7.



The shrubs in central Asia reach 0.5–6 meters tall, rarely up to 10 meters. The leaf arrangement can be alternate, or opposite.

Common sea buckthorn has branches that are dense,  stiff, and very thorny.

The leaves are a distinct pale silvery-green, lanceolate, 3–8 centimeters long and less than 7 millimeters broad. It is dioecious, with separate male and female plants. The male produces brownish flowers which produce wind-distributed pollen. The female plants produce orange berries 6–9 millimeters in diameter, soft, juicy and rich in oils. The roots distribute rapidly and extensively, providing a non-leguminous nitrogen fixation role in surrounding soils.

Hippophae salicifolia (willow-leaved sea buckthorn) is restricted to the Himalayas, to the south of the common sea buckthorn, growing at high altitudes in dry valleys; it differs from H. rhamnoides in having broader (to 10 millimeters) and greener (less silvery) leaves, and yellow berries. A wild variant occurs in the same area, but at even higher altitudes in the alpine zone. It is a low shrub not growing taller than 1 meter with small leaves 1–3 centimeters long.


A study of nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer sequence data showed that the genus can be divided into three monophyletic clades:

  • tibetana
  • rhamnoides with the exception of  H. rhamnoides ssp.  Gyantsensis  (=H. gyantsensis) 
  • remaining species

A study using chloroplast sequences and morphology, however, recovered only two clades:

  • tibetanaH. gyantsensisH. salicifoliaH. neurocarpa
  • rhamnoides

Natural history

The fruit is an important winter food resource for some birds, notably fieldfares.

Leaves are eaten by the larva of the coastal race of the ash pug moth and by larvae of other Lepidoptera including brown-taildun-baremperor mothmottled umber and Coleophora elaeagnisella.



Fruit harvesting

Because of the dense thorn arrangement among the berries on each branch harvesting  is difficult . A common harvesting technique is to remove an entire branch, though this is destructive to the shrub and reduces future harvests. A branch that removed in this way is then frozen, allowing the berries to be easily shaken off.

The worker then crushes the berries to remove up to 95% of the leaves and other debris. This causes the berries to melt slightly from the surface as the work takes place at ambient temperature (about 20 °C). Berries or the crushed pulp are later frozen for storage.

The most effective way to harvest berries and not damage branches is by using a berry-shaker. Mechanical harvesting leaves up to 50% in the field and the berries can be harvested only once in two years. They only get about 25% of the yield that could be harvested with this relatively new machinery.


Sea buckthorn berries are edible and nutritious, though astringentsour and oily, unpleasant to eat raw, unless ‘bletted‘ and/or mixed as a drink with sweeter substances such as apple or grape juice. Mechanism behind this change is transformation of malic acid into lactic acid in microbial metabolism.

When the berries are pressed, the resulting sea buckthorn juice separates into three layers: on top is a thick, orange cream; in the middle, a layer containing sea buckthorn’s characteristic high content of saturated and polyunsaturated fats; and the bottom layer is sediment and juice. Containing fat sources applicable for cosmetic purposes, the upper two layers can be processed for skin creams and liniments, whereas the bottom layer can be used for edible products like syrup.

Besides juice, sea buckthorn fruit can be used to make piesjamslotionsteasfruit wines and liquors. The juice or pulp has other potential applications in foods, beverages or cosmetics products. Fruit drinks were among the earliest sea buckthorn products developed in China. Sea buckthorn-based juice is popular in Germany and Scandinavian countries. It provides a nutritious beverage, rich in vitamin C and carotenoids.

For its troops confronting extremely low temperatures , India’s Defence Research Development Organizationestablished a factory in Leh to manufacture a multi-vitamin herbal beverage based on sea buckthorn juice.

The seed and pulp oils have nutritional properties that vary under different processing methods. Sea buckthorn oils are used as a source for ingredients in several commercially available cosmetic products and nutritional supplements.

Landscape uses

Sea buckthorn is a popular garden and landscaping shrub with an aggressive basal shoot system used for barrier hedges and windbreaks, and to stabilize riverbanks and steep slopes. They have value in northern climates for their landscape qualities, as the colorful berry clusters are retained through winter. Branches may be used by florists for designing ornaments.

In northwestern China, sea buckthorn shrubs have been planted on the bottoms of dry riverbeds to increase water retention of the soil and thus decrease sediment loss. Because of increased moisture conservation of the soil and nitrogen-fixing capabilities of sea buckthorn, vegetation levels have increased in areas where sea buckthorn have been planted. Sea buckthorn was once distributed free of charge to Canadian prairie farmers by PFRA to be used in shelterbelts.


Chemical Composition


Sea buckthorn fruit consists of sugars, sugar alcohols, fruit acids, vitamins (C, E and K), phenolic compounds, carotenoids, fiber, amino acids, minerals and plant sterols. The fruit contains many of these in high amounts, and is thus considered highly nutritious. Species belonging to genus Hippophae accumulate oil both in soft parts and in seed of the fruit. Oil content in soft parts is 1.5–3 % while in seed this is 11% of the fresh weight. For the compositions of sea buckthorn oils, see article: sea buckthorn oil.

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Major sugars in sea buckthorn fruits are fructose and glucose. Typical sourness of the fruits is due to high content of malic acid while astringency is related toquinic acid. Major sugar alcohol in fruit is L-quebrachitol .

The fruit of the plant has a high vitamin C content – in a range of 114 to 1550 mg per 100 grams with an average content, placing sea buckthorn fruit among the most enriched plant sources of vitamin C. Additionally, fruits have high concentrations of carotenoids, vitamin E and vitamin K. The main carotenoids are beta-carotene,zeaxanthin and lycopene while alpha-tocopherol is the major vitamin E compound.

The most prevalent dietary minerals in sea buckthorn fruits  are potassium, manganese and copper.

The fruit is also rich in plant sterols, β-sitosterol being the major sterol compound as it constitutes 57–83 % of total sterols.

Potential Health effect

Traditional medicine

Different parts of sea buckthorn have been used as traditional therapies for diseases. Bark and leaves have been used for treating diarrhea and dermatological disorders. Berry oil, either taken orally or applied topically, is believed to be a skin softener.


Impact of sea buckthorn berries on the risk of cardiovascular disease is currently under preliminary research, involving studies with fresh and dried berries, extracts and oil from whole berry, pulp or seeds.


Ziziphus jujuba, commonly called jujube,red date, Chinese date, Korean date, or Indian date is a species of Ziziphus in the buckthorn family . It is used primarily as a shade tree that also bears fruit.



It is a small deciduous tree or shrub reaching a height of 5–12 metres (16–39 ft), usually with thorny branches. The leaves are shiny-green, ovate-acute, 2–7 centimeters (0.79–2.76 in) wide and 1–3 centimeters (0.39–1.18 in) broad, with three conspicuous veins at the base, and a finely toothed margin. The flowers are small, 5 millimeters (0.20 in) wide, with five inconspicuous yellowish-green petals. The fruit is an edible oval drupe 1.5–3 centimeters (0.59–1.18 in) deep; when immature it is smooth-green, with the consistency and taste of an apple, maturing brown to purplish-black and eventually wrinkled, looking like a small date. There is a single hard stone similar to an olive stone.


Its precise natural distribution is uncertain due to extensive cultivation, but is thought to be in southern Asia, between Lebanon, northern India, and southern and central China, and possibly also southeastern Europe though more likely introduced there. This plant has been introduced in Madagascar and grows as an invasive species in the western part of the island. This plant is known as the “hinap” or “finab” in the eastern part of Bulgaria where it grows wild but is also a garden shrub, kept for its fruit. The fruit is picked in the autumn. The trees grow wild in the eastern Caribbean, and are reported to exist in Jamaica and Trinidad as well. In Antigua and Barbuda, the fruit is called “dumps . It is also known as “pomme surete” on the French islands of the Caribbean. This fruit, more precisely known as “Indian jujube” elsewhere, is different from the “jujube” fruit that is cultivated in various parts of southern California.



The species has a curious nomenclatural history, due to a combination of botanical naming regulations, and variations in spelling.It was first described scientifically by Carl Linnaeus as Rhamnus zizyphus, in Species Plantarum in 1753. Later, in 1768, Philip Miller concluded it was sufficiently distinct from Rhamnus to merit separation into a new genus, in which he named it Ziziphus jujube, using Linnaeus’ species name for the genus but with a probably accidental single letter spelling difference, “i” for “y”. For the species name he used a different name, as tautonyms are not permitted in botanical naming. However, because of Miller’s slightly different spelling, the combination correctly using the earliest species name with the new genus, Ziziphus zizyphus, is not a tautonym, and was therefore permitted as a botanical name. This combination was made by Hermann Karsten in 1882. In 2006, a proposal was made to suppress the name Ziziphus zizyphus in favor of Ziziphus jujuba, and this proposal was accepted in 2011. Ziziphus jujuba is thus the correct scientific name for this species.


Vernacular names

Jujube fruit is known by a variety of names. In Iran, it is called (Annab)

Cultural and religious references

In Arabic-speaking regions the jujube and alternatively the Ziziphus lotus are closely related to the lote-trees which are mentioned in the Quran, while in Palestine it is rather the Ziziphus spina-christi that is called sidr.


Cultivation and uses

Jujube was domesticated in south Asia by 9000 BCE. Over 400 cultivars have been selected. The tree tolerates a wide range of temperatures and rainfall, though it requires hot summers and sufficient water for acceptable fruiting. Unlike most of the other species in the genus, it tolerates fairly cold winters, surviving temperatures down to about −15 °C (5 °F). This enables the jujube to grow in mountain or desert habitats, provided there is access to underground water throughout the summer.
The species Ziziphus jujuba grows in cooler regions of Asia. Five or more other species of Ziziphus are widely distributed in milder climates to hot deserts of Asia and Africa.
In Madagascar, jujube trees grow extensively in the western part of the island, from the north all the way to the south. It is widely eaten by free ranging zebus, and its seeds grow easily in zebu feces. It is an invasive species, threatening mostly protected areas.

Culinary use

The freshly harvested as well as the candied dried fruit are often eaten as a snack, or with coffee. Smoked jujubes are consumed in Vietnam and are referred to as ‘black jujubes. Both China and Korea produce a sweetened tea syrup containing jujube fruit in glass jars, and canned jujube tea or jujube tea in the form of teabags. To a lesser extent, jujube fruit is made into juice and jujube vinegar. They are used for making pickles in west Bengal and Bangladesh. In China there is a wine made from jujube fruit, called hong zao jiu.
Sometimes pieces of jujube fruit are preserved by storing them in a jar filled with baijiu , which allows them to be kept fresh for a long time, especially through the winter. Such jujubes are called jiu zao (literally “alcohol jujube”). The fruit is also a significant ingredient in a wide variety of Chinese delicacies.
In Vietnam and Taiwan, fully mature, nearly ripe fruit is harvested and sold on the local markets and also exported to Southeast Asian countries. The dried fruit is used in desserts in China and Vietnam, such as Ching bo leung, a cold beverage that includes the dried jujube, longan, fresh seaweed, barley, and lotus seeds.
In Persian cuisine, the dried drupes are known as “annab”, while in neighboring
Azerbaijan it is commonly eaten as a snack, and are known as “innab”. These names are related, and the Turks use a similarly related name, “hünna.Ziziphus jujuba grows in northern Pakistan and is known as “innab”, commonly used in the Tibb system of medicine. There seems to be quite a widespread confusion in the common name. The innab isZ. jujuba: the local name “ber” is not used for innab. Rather ber is used for three other cultivated or wild species, e.g., Z. spina-christi, Z. mauritiana, and Z. nummularia in Pakistan and parts of India and is eaten both fresh and dried. Often the dry fruit was used as a padding in leather horse saddles in parts of Baluchistan in Pakistan. The Arabic name “sidr” is used for Ziziphus species other than Z. jujube.
Traditionally in India, the fruit is dried in the sun and the hard nuts are removed. Then, it is pounded with tamarind, red chillies, salt, and jaggery. In some parts of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu, fresh whole ripe fruit is crushed with the above ingredients and dried under the sun to make cakes called “ilanthai vadai” or “regi vadiyalu” (Telugu . (
In Madagascar, jujube fruit is eaten fresh or dried. People also use it to make jam. A jujube honey is produced in the Atlas Mountains of Morocco.
In Italy there is an alcoholic syrup called brodo di giuggiole.

Medicinal use

The fruit and its seeds are used in Chinese and Korean traditional medicine, where they are believed to alleviate stress, and traditionally for anti-fungal, anti-bacterial, anti-ulcer, anti-inflammatory purposes and sedation, antispastic, antifertility/contraception, hypotensive and antinephritic, cardiotonic, antioxidant, immunostimulant, and wound healing properties. A controlled clinical trial found the fruit helpful for chronic constipation. In another clinical trial, jujube was proved to be effective against neonatal jaundice.
In Persian traditional medicine it is used in combination with other herbal medicines to treat colds, flu and coughing.
Research suggests jujube fruit has nootropic and neuroprotective properties.
Ziziphin, a compound in the leaves of the jujube, suppresses the ability to perceive sweet taste. The fruit, being mucilaginous, is very soothing to the throat and decoctions of jujube have often been used in pharmacy to treat sore throats.



Other uses

The jujube’s sweet smell is believed to make teenagers fall in love, and as a result, in the Himalaya and Karakoram regions, boys take a stem of sweet-smelling jujube flowers with them or put it on their hats to attract girls.
In the traditional Chinese wedding ceremony, the jujube was often placed in the newlyweds’ bedroom as a good luck charm for fertility, along with peanuts, longan, and chestnuts, punning on an invocation to “have an honored child soon”.
In Bhutan, the leaves are used as a potpourri to help keep homes smelling fresh and clean. It is also used to keep bugs and other insects out of the house and free of infestation.
In Japan, the natsume has given its name to a style of tea caddy used in the Japanese tea ceremony, due to the similar shape, and also to nightlights , again due to the similarity between the shape of the bulb and the fruit.
In Korea, the wood is used to make the body of the taepyeongso, a double-reed wind instrument. The wood is also used to make Go bowls, beads, and violin parts. In Madagascar, jujube trees are a good wood for charcoal, the second main source of cooking energy.

Pets and diseases

Witch’s brooms, prevalent in China and Korea, is the main disease affecting jujubes, though plantings in North America currently are not affected by any pests or diseases. In Europe last several years there is a problem with jujubes (some 80%-90% of the crop) eaten by insect larvae, including those of the false codling moth, Thaumatotibia leucotreta .

Orange flower, orange blossom tree in the perfume and the essential oils, a variety of seasonal drinks and waters and jams, never, filing and has many applications.
Babel and Shiraz In May month, with Rayjh magical citrus, heady passer is any way that this Shiraz and sour orange city called Babylon.

Bahar Narenj

Regulations Citrus Aurantium

Sweat band traditional ceremonies Citrus Aurantium, including traditional rituals and Mazandaranis is long. With the arrival of May each year, the National Festival of Citrus Aurantium for symbolic city Babylon be held.
The ceremony was recorded at the Supreme Council of the Cultural Heritage and Tourism, as the National Festival of Citrus, reached the National Register and the secretariat of the festival has been held in Sari and Babol. Each year, several hundred paper sent festivals and examined.


Properties of Citrus Aurantium

Citrus relax and calm nervous system, nervous headaches and migraine to reduce irregular heartbeat and destroy anxiety.
Mortaza Safavi nutritionist says Citrus Aurantium nature is warm and nourishing body and soul.
Orange skin is anti- constipation and it is the best medicine for people who have reflex.
Citrus jam is stomach tonic and anti- seizure .
Citrus aurantium is strong appetizer and it is helpful to address weaknesses and uplifting and also it is effective in relieving discomfort in the chest and heart palpitations and it can use for irregular heartbeat.
Citrus Aurantium is used to flavor syrups, strengthens the nerves and insomnia cure people can sleep earlier, they can consumption some Citrus Aurantium with tea. To make tea Citrus aurantium, is sufficient, 10 grams of Citrus aurantium flowers in two cups of boiling water to boil for 20 minutes. And then smooth it with a tablespoon of honey drink.
By drinking this tea, and slowly you will sleep.

Citrus Aurantium instead of Diazepam

According to the results of a study about Citrus Aurantium , it can be used as a premedication to reduce patients’ anxiety before surgery.
In this study, 60 patients aged 14 to 48 admitted to hospital for surgery and randomly divided into two groups of 30 each.
2 hours before the operation one group used 100 cc Citrus Aurantium and the other group used a tablet 5 mg of diazepam in 100 ml of water orally.
The patients’ anxiety by Spielberger and vital signs were recorded before and 2 hours after the first dose.
The findings of this study:
Groups in terms of demographic characteristics, pulse rate and anxiety before surgery were similar.
The anxiety of taking the drug situation in both groups decreased consumer of Citrus Aurantium and diazepam.
A comparison of the two groups showed no significant difference.
Changes in pulse rate and blood pressure in both groups before and after treatment showed no significant difference.



Do you know what are the benefits of this useful Musk willow sweatt?
Musk willow herb is generally from the ethnic name of the willow tree that is smaller than the size of the butterfly, but it has oil spikes fragrant.

Musk willowherb flowers appear before the leaves open and it is the best type of flower color.
Essential oils from the flowers of this plant are Musk willow sweat plus syrup , aromatic syrup for use and is capable of taking treatment.
Department of Natural Resources and Watershed of Sistan and Blouchestan said: cold , wet nature of Musk willow herb , tonic dementia, heart-natured fun mood and it relieves headaches.

Musk willow and see its medicinal properties

This plant is a good scent and has many properties including dementia and heart tonic properties, fun spirit and…
Musk willow sweats medicinal properties and health benefits
It is a race of weeping willow smaller than the size of its spikes, they are scented with essential oils. The flowers appear before the leaves open and the best kind of that has more yellow flower color. Essential oils from flowers, this plant is called Musk willow sweat that comes with syrup, aromatic syrup to use and it is capable of taking treatment.


Musk willow sweat properties

Nature’s of Musk willow is cold ,wet , tonic ,laxative bowel, dementia, heart and soul are fun and also relieves headaches from Hot nature.
If someone in the throat and the pharynx or the surrounding leeches attached Musk willow leaf can extract and separate the member and they will be removed from the throat. Musk willow sweat can low blood sugar and eats about fifty cubic centimeters of Musk willow are sweat-free.

Health benefits sweat Musk willow

Musk willow spikes of the flavored aromatic plant of the race. In addition to the healing properties of essential is also it is also used as oils Musk willow or sweet-scented syrup.
Musk willow herbal laxative and strengthening the heart, nerves and stimulating sexual powers.This herb strengthens the digestive system and increases appetite.
Musk willow barks decoction of the leaves or the disposal of parasites and worms in the stomach and intestines.
Using Musk willow leaf tea with honey strengthening the nervous system and calms the nerves.
Musk willow flowers boiled with sugar improves , nervousness, depression, neuralgia and rheumatism.
Musk willow is a sweat heart tonic, and, it is very convenient and effective for good health and it also reduces fever and has antipyretic properties.

Salix aegyptiaca94

Common chicory, Cichorium intybus, is a somewhat woody, perennial herbaceous plant of the dandelion family, that usually have bright blue flowers, rarely white or pink.

Many varieties of Chicory are cultivated for salad leaves, chicons (blanched buds), or roots, which are baked, ground, and used as a coffee substitute and additive and it is also grown as a forage crop for livestock.

“Chicory” is also the common name in the United States for curly endive; these two closely related species are often confused.



Common chicory is also known as blue daisy, blue dandelion, blue sailors, blue weed, bunk, coffee weed, cornflower, hendibeh , horse weed, ragged sailors, succor , wild bachelor’s buttons, and wild endive.

Common names for varieties of var. foliosum include endive, radicchio, Belgian endive, French endive, red endive, sugarloaf, and witloof (witlof).


When flowering, chicory has a tough, grooved, and more or less hairy stem , from 30 to 100 cm (10 to 40 in) tall with the stalked , lanceolate and unlobed leaves.

These flowers heads are 2 to 4 cm (0.79 to 1.6 in) wide, and usually bright blue, rarely white or pink. From the two rows of  involucral bracts , the inner is longer and erect, the outer is shorter and spreading. This plant  flowers are  from July until October. The achenes have no feathery hairs, but do have toothed scales on top.

Leaf Chicory


Wild chicory leaves usually have a bitter taste which appreciated in certain cuisines.

The bitterness is reduced, by cooking and discarding the water, after which the chicory leaves may be sautéed with garlic, anchovies, and other ingredients. In this form, the resulting greens might be combined with pasta or accompany meat dishes.


Chicory may be cultivated for its leaves and usually eaten raw as salad leaves. Cultivated chicory is generally divided into three types, which of  them are many varieties:

  • Radicchio usually has variegated red or red and green leaves. Some only refer to the white-veined red-leaved type as radicchio, that also known as red endive and red chicory whit a bitter and spicy taste, which mellows when it is grilled or roasted. It can also be used to add color and zest to salads.
  • Sugar loaf looks rather like cos lettuce, with tightly packed leaves.
  • It has a small head of cream-colored, bitter leaves and it is grown completely underground or indoors in the absence of sunlight in order to prevent the leaves from turning green and opening up .The plant has to be kept just below the soil surface as it grows, only showing the very tip of the leaves. It is often sold wrapped in blue paper to protect it from light and so preserve its pale color and delicate flavor. The smooth, creamy white leaves may be served stuffed, baked, boiled, cut and cooked in a milk sauce, or simply cut raw. The tender leaves are slightly bitter; the whiter the leaf, the less bitter the taste. The harder inner part of the stem at the bottom of the head should be cut out before cooking to prevent bitterness. Belgium exports chicon/witloof to over 40 different countries. The technique for growing blanched endives was accidentally discovered in the 1850s at the Botanical Garden of Brussels in Saint-Josse-ten-Noode, Belgium. Today France is the largest producer of endive.

The Catalogna chicory includes a whole subfamily of chicory and used throughout Italy .

Although leaf chicory is often called “endive”, true endive is a different species in the genus and should not be confused with Belgian endive.


Root Chicory

Root chicory has been cultivated in Europe as a coffee substitute. They are baked, ground, and used as an additive, especially in the Mediterranean region where the plant is native. As a coffee additive, it is also mixed in Indian filter coffee, and in parts of  Southeast Asia, South Africa, and southern United States, particularly in New Orleans. It has been more widely used during economic crises such as the Great Depression in the 1930s and during World War II in Continental Europe. Chicory, with sugar beet and rye, was used as an ingredient of the East German Mischkaffee (mixed coffee), introduced during the “East German coffee crisis” of 1976-79.

Around 1970, it was found that the root contains up to 20% inulin, a polysaccharide similar to starch..It is used as a sweetener in the food industry with a sweetening power 1⁄10 that of sucrose and is sometimes added to yogurts as a prebiotic. Inulin is also gaining popularity as a source of soluble dietary fiber and functional food.

Chicory root extract is a dietary supplement or food additive produced by mixing dried, ground chicory root with water, and removing the insoluble fraction by filtration and centrifugation. Other methods may be used to remove pigments and sugars. It is used as a source of soluble fiber.

Agents Responsible for bitterness

The bitter substances are primarily the two sesquiterpene lactones lactucin and lactucopicrin.

Medicinal Use

Root chicory contains volatile oils similar to those found in plants in the related genus which includes Tansy, and is similarly effective at eliminating intestinal worms. All parts of the plant contain these volatile oils, with the majority of the toxic components concentrated in the plant’s root.

Chicory is well known for its toxicity to internal parasites. Studies indicate that ingestion of chicory by farm animals results in reduction of worm burdens, which has prompted its widespread use as a forage supplement.

It is variously used as a tonic and as a treatment for gallstones, gastro-enteritis, sinus problems and cuts and bruises. Chicory contains inulin, which may help humans with weight loss, constipation, improving bowel function and general health.


Alternative medicine

Chicory has been listed as one of the 38 plants that are used to prepare Bach flower remedies, a kind of alternative medicine. However, according to Cancer Research UK, “there is no scientific evidence to prove that flower remedies can control, cure or prevent any type of disease, including cancer”.

Native American use

The Cherokee use an infusion of the root as a tonic for nerves.The Iroquois use a decoction of the roots a wash and apply a poultice of it chancres and fever sores.


The chicory plant is one of the earliest cited in recorded literature. Horace mentions it in reference to his own diet, which he describes as very simple: In 1766, Frederick the Great banned the importation of coffee into Prussia leading to the development of a coffee-substitute by Brunswick innkeeper Christian Gottlieb Förster (died 1801), who gained a concession in 1769/70 to manufacture it in Brunswick and Berlin. By 1795 there were 22 to 24 factories of  this type in Brunswick. Lord Monboddo describes the plant in 1779 as the “chicoree”, which the French cultivated as a pot herb. In Napoleonic Era France, chicory frequently appeared as either an adulterant in coffee, or as a coffee substitute. Chicory was also adopted as a coffee substitute by Confederate soldiers during the American Civil War, and has become common in the United States. It was also used in the United Kingdom during the Second World War, where Camp Coffee, a coffee and chicory essence, has been on sale since 1885.

The cultivated chicory plant has a history reaching back to ancient Egyptian time. Medieval monks raised the plants and when coffee was introduced to Europe, the Dutch thought that chicory made a lively addition to the bean drink.

In the United States chicory root has long been used as a substitute for coffee in prisons. By the 1840s, the port of New Orleans was the second largest importer of coffee (after New York). Louisianans began to add chicory root to their coffee when Union naval blockades during the American Civil War cut off the port of New Orleans, thereby creating a long-standing tradition.

A common meal in Rome, puntarelle, is made with chicory sprouts.The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) reports that Chicory is a native plant of western Asia, North Africa and Europe.

Chicory is also mentioned in certain sericulture (silk-growing) texts. It is said that the primary caretaker of the silkworms, the “silkworm mother”, should not eat or even touch it.

The chicory flower is often seen as inspiration for the Romantic concept of the Blue Flower . It could open locked doors, according to European folklore.


Benefits of Chicory

Chicory is one of the effective Pharmaceutical plants that have several kinds in the nature. All of its elements have got many advantages for the human body, if it is used in a balanced manner. Chicory hasgot a specific place among Iranians from long time ago. All grandmothers have maintained a small glass of Chicory among their perfumes and spices in their kitchens, beside to Carboy, Shutter, Borage and Mint.

Apothecary and Pundits specialized in Medicinal Plants and Traditional medicine have classified Chicory as a plant with cool Nature, which its  benefits are  removing fever and inflammation of body,feeling of lethargy,whey-faced,yellow face, and specially laziness of Liver, and if we use it continuously and carefully, thenwe can see and feel its effectiveness inour body.

From the past in Iran people have lots of information about Chicory advantages and use several parts of Chicory plus its water for
filtering the blood and Cleansing the liver. Chicory has 2 kinds of outdoor or wild and the cultivated by farmers. The wild kind can be found near the rivers and meadows, at the beginning of spring.

Harvest time of Chicory is in the middle of May that takes about one month.

Adding Chicory to Sekanjabin syrup is very common in Iran and people use it to come along with lettuce as an afternoon snack.

Benefits of Chicory for Livre

Chicory with its effects on the liver provides such a condition that cause sexcretion of  bile and icterus from the body and makes our liver fresh, so it is known asan effective sedative for fever.

Liver is a detoxification organ in the body which has got more than 500 vital functions, like separation of nutrients from waste, detoxification, chemical decomposition, destruction of microbes, regulation of hormones, the metabolism of fats, proteins, and sugars, and urea excretion.

Everything we eat, drink, breath or touch with our skin, finally effects on our liver, thus any dysfunction in our liver leads to many problems for the body and its side-effects spread through the whole body. Pale of the skin, fatigue, inflammation, thirst, elevation of blood lipids and etc.are the signs which show there is a problem with liver.

From the other benefits of Chicory are being laxative and diuretic. Having removed poison from the body, it eliminates the bilious fevers, jaundice, and pale caused by warm nature foods. It cleans gallstones , also the stones from kidney and bladder. It also heals gastritis and stimulates our stomach and boosts our appetite.

The more bitter chicory is, the more it is useful for healing the liver diseases.

The other benefits of Chicory

Chicory is good for the people who have Gout and Hepatitis.

Immunization against infectious diseases is another benefit of Chicory.

Chicory is rich in Vitamin C, whichits wild type has got herbal phosphorous and iron.

Chicory is good for skin and by strengthening the liver, makes the skin color brighter,heals chronic skin diseases, especially eczema, urinary sediment and rashes caused by warmed nature foods.

Chicory is the best medicine to boost sex power. This is one of the specific properties of Chicory for men.

Out of the other benefits of Chicory, as it is good for Liver, it can increase the fertility of hormones and sperms, also it affects and regulates themale and female chromosomes and divides them proportionately.

Using chicory is good for the treatment of high blood pressure, strengthening the stomach, liver, kidney, treatment of neurasthenia and also a resolver for thirst.


Chicory Harms

In view of the chicory benefits, it has got some disadvantages either.

Long-term consumption of chicory causes the destruction of retinal vessels, drop of blood pressure and increase of discharges .

In view of the fact that the consumption of chicory may cause uterine muscles contraction, so its usage during pregnancy might leads to preterm delivery.


Liquorice is from which a sweet flavor can be extracted. The  liquorice  plant  is  a  herbaceous  perennial  legume native  to  southern  Europe  and  parts of  Asia, such  as  India.  Liquorice  flavors  are used  as  candies  or sweeteners, particularly  in  some  European and  Middle  Eastern  countries.

Liquorice  extracts  have  a  number  of  medical  uses, and  they  are  also  used  in herbal and  folk  medications. Excessive  consumption  of  liquorice may  result  in adverse  effects, and  over  consumption  should  be  suspected  clinically  in patients  presenting  with  otherwise  unexplained  hypokalemiaand  muscle weakness.

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It is a herbaceous perennial, growing to 1 m in height, with pinnate leaves about 7-15 cm long , with 9-17 leaflets. The flowers are 0.8-1.2 cm long , purple to pale whitish blue, produced in a loose inflorescence. The fruit is an rectangular sheath, 2-3 cm longthy, containing several grains. The stems are stoloniferous.



The odor of liquorices root comes from a intricate and changing combination of compounds, of which anethole is up to 3% of total volatiles. Much of the sweetness in liquorices comes from glycyrrhizin, which has a sweet taste, about 30-50 times more than the sweetness of sugar. The sweetness is very different from sugar, being less instant, tart, and lasting longer.

Phytoestrogens are the isoflavene glabrene and the isoflavene glabridin, found in the roots of liquorice.


Cultivation and uses

Liquorice, grows best in well-drained soils in deep valleys with full sun and is harvested in the autumn two to three years after planting. These are countries that producing liquorices : India, Iran, Afghanistan, the People’s Republic of China, Pakistan, Iraq, Azerbaijan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, and Turkey.

The world leading manufacturer of  liquorices  products is M&F Worldwide,which manufactures more than 70% of the worldwide liquorices flavors sold to end users.



Food and candy

Liquorice odor  is found in a wide variety of candies or sweets that in most of these candies , the actual content of liquorice is very low because the taste is reinforced by aniseed oil.

The root of the plant is simply dug up, washed, dried, and chewed, as a mouth freshener.

Dried liqorice root can be chewed as a sweet. Black liquorice contains about  100 calories per ounce .


Glycyrrhizin has also proved antiviral, antimicrobial, anti- inflammatory,

hepatic protective, and blood pressure-incresing effects in vitro and vivo, as is supported by the finding that intravenous glycyrrhizin slows the progression of  viral and  autoimmune hepatitis. In one clinical trial liquorices demonstrated promising activity, when applied topically, against atopic dermatitis. Additionally , liquorices may be  effective in treating hyperlipidaemia.

Liquorices has also demonstrated efficacy in treating inflammation-induced skin

hyperpigmentation . Liqurice may be useful in preventing neurodegenerative

disorders  and dental caries too.

The antiulcer, laxative, anti diabetic, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, antitumour and expectorant properties of  liquorices have been investigated.

For liver protection in tuberculosis therapy , the compound of glycyrrhizin, found in liquorices ,has been proposed as being useful, but as this use may be harmful so evidence doesn’t support it .



The major dose-limiting toxicities of  Liquorices are corticosteroid in nature, because of the inhibitory , effect its chief active constituents , glycyrrhizin and enoxolone , have on cortisol degradation and include oedema, hypokalaemia ,weight gain or loss , and hypertension .

The United States Food and Drug Administration believes that foods containing liquorices and its derivatives are safe if not consumed excessively. Other jurisdictions have suggested no more than 100 mg to 200 mg of glycyrrhizin per day, the equivalent of  about 70 to 150 g of  liquorices.



Several species have been widely introduced worldwide.


Plants of the Arctium types have dark green leaves that can grow up to 70 cm (28 in) long. They are commonly large, coarse and oval, with the lower ones being heart-shaped.They are wooly underneath with hollow leaf stalks.  Arctium species generally from July through to October have flowered.In August Burdock flowers provide essential pollen and nectar for honey bees.

A large number of species have been placed in genus Arctium at one time or another. The burdocks are sometimes confused with the cockleburs and rhubarb.


Food and drinks

We can harvest and eat Burdock as a root vegetable. Burdock root is very crisp and has a sweet, mild, and pungent flavor with a little muddy harshness that can be reduced by soaking julienned or shredded roots in water for five to ten minutes.

Premature flower stems may also be harvested in late spring before flowers appear; their taste resembles that of artichoke, to which the burdock is related. The stems are thoroughly pared, and either eaten raw or boiled in salt water.

In the second half of the 20th century, burdock achieved international recognition for its culinary use due to the increasing popularity of the macrobiotic diet, which advocates its consumption. It contains a fair amount of dietary fiber, calcium, potassium, amino acids, and is low in calories. It contains a  polyphenol oxidase , which causes its darkened surface and muddy harshness by forming tannin-iron complexes. Burdock root’s harshness harmonizes well with pork  in miso soup  and with Japanese-style pilaf.

Burdock is believed to be a galactagogue, a substance that increases lactation, but it is sometimes recommended to be avoided during pregnancy based on animal studies that show components of  burdock to cause uterus stimulation.


Traditional Medicine

Folk herbalists considered dried burdock to be a diuretic, diaphoretic, and a  blood  purifying agent. Burdock is a traditional medicinal herb used for many ailments. Burdock root oil extract. Modern studies indicate that burdock root oil extract is rich in phytosterols and essential fatty acids. The green, above-ground portions may cause contact dermatitis in individual with allergies as the plant contains lactones.