Kashan Fin Garden is the name of one of the Iranian gardens that the Fin Bath is located inside it. This counted place is the place that Naseeruddin shah (king) in the year of 1852 B.C. killed his chancellor Amir Kabir inside it. Background and history of the Fin garden and its buildings are back to the Safavid era. The extent of the garden is over 23 thousand square meters and it contains one central garden that is surrounded by the wall, battlements in the shape of Cylindrical. In compare with the Iranian similar gardens, this one with its garden is liquor with the considerable water.
The Fin garden and its buildings are located in Kashan and this effect on the Saturday of the date on 7 December of 1935 with the registration Number of 238 registered as one of the National Monuments of the Iran and it is for some years that registered as UNESCO world record.
Some references show the age of this garden is back to the Buwayhid Reign. With citing to these references the great Earthquake of the year 1573 B.C. was the reason of the overall damage to this garden. There are the remains of the garden with the few hundred yards distance to the Fin garden (New garden) that is known as the Kohneh garden (Old garden). Kohneh garden had the most extended in the Ilkhanan Mughal period. Anyway, present building of the Fin garden attributed to the reign of great Shah Abbas and Iran cultural heritage knows the designer of the garden is Qiasedin Jamshid Kashani.
However, the universities references know the designing of the garden is for Sheikh Baha’i. Construction work and developments of this garden continued in the era of Shah Safi and Shah Abbas II and come to be in its peak model. The buildings of the entrance, Safavid Belvedere and one of the bathrooms related to that time. Also, Shah Soleiman Safavid (King) constructed the platform around the Fin fountain that is likely to change the name of the Fin fountain to the Soleimanieh fountain. From the late Safavid period until Zandieh period and coincides with Afqan attack and Nadir Shah campaigns it was not any attention to the garden.
In the period of Karim Khan Zand at the same time of the occurrence of several successive earthquakes, the garden, and its buildings were repaired and the Karimkhani private building was added to it.
During the reign of Fath Ali Shah Qajar, many portions were added to the garden building. Almost all the rest of the buildings in the garden, all are the product of this era. But with the Fatali Shah death, the handle of gardens and trees was left and even parts of the garden vanished. With the National Register of this effect in seventy years ago, the care of that is come to be more important. In the Pahlavi period, the building of the Kashan National Museum on the ruins of the Nezamodoleh privacy was made and also the building in between of the library and bathrooms was made and the other buildings repaired.Mismanagement and neglect in the past few years, was the cause of irreparable damages to the garden.
In 1935 and coinciding with the National Register of this effect, first the central pool of the garden repaired. In the year 1957, the building that it was called the privacy of Nezamodoleh and it was completely destroyed, another time rebuilt and was allocated to the National Museum. The repair of other architectural elements of the garden including Belvedere was started in 1979.
In the year 2008, the continue of the organizing the carpet of the floor, preparation of file pathology plan and treatment of plant ground cover Fin Garden, organizing the channels of the output water ponds and streams in the garden, Restoration of in Chinese wood knot of mansion in the head, Made the roof of Safavid Belvedere and vector of debris, organization of the waterways in addition to the vector of the debris, making the roof of the West side and installed surveillance cameras of the garden were done.
Looking for global registration filing of this effect, in the year of 2010, UNESCO issued mandate changes in pavement and sidewalks garden, and these changes were made.
Architecture of the Garden
Being elements of water and tree that they are dynamic elements near the building and they are fixed elements of the architecture, give the live identity to this cultural and historical effect.
Fin garden is one of the most important Iranian gardens that is alive and well right now. Also, this garden introduces a method to create a cultural landscape.
In the design of Fin garden water is the most basic element. Water in the Fin garden is in the shape of stagnant (in the pool in front of the summerhouse and Safavi pool house) spirit (inside barley) outburst (fountains) and boiling (The rise of water from the regular holes in the bottom of the pond inside the boiling pond and Safavi spring house and Fath Ali shah(king) Shotor Galoo (Camel’s throat) and all of them are existence together. Any of the different shapes of the water in this garden evokes a certain sense. Plenty of water and flows them in rivers with turquoise tiles, in the environment that is really rare and the trees with the vast shadow is in the great conflict with the dry and inhospitable nature of the dessert that it is widespread behind the walls of the garden.
Flowing water in barley, pools, and ponds of the garden, comes from the Sulaimaniyah spring. The water of this spring first collected in the pool behind the garden. The height difference of this pool in compare with the surface of the barley make the creation of fountain possible that throws the water over in the gravity way.
Construction and performance of fountains
Under the all of the barleys and around the whole of the fountains in the one meter depth of the earth some pipes are embedded with the name of Tanbousheh these pipes are from the earthenware gender that from one way they are connected to the main ponds and the other side of it is closed at the end of the barley. The water enters from one side and because the end of the pipe is close it will come out from the fountains. Because the ground is skewed and for dividing the pressure peoples made pipe diameter different. The beginning of the pipe is thicker than the end of it. In this way, pressure is dividing and the amount of water that comes out of the fountain is to the same degree. The water of the main pond is boiling from the twelve springs inside it that people say (Boil Pond)Hoz Joush to it. Since then, water flows in the barley with the turquoise tiles. The colour is in the conflict with the earthen colour of around it.
The designer water system
The designer of the system, famous mathematician of the Tenth century and Safavi era, was Mr. Jamshid Kashani. This man about 200 years before Pascal used from the level difference law and benefited from the natural slope of the land.
The most important plants of the Fin garden includes 579 Cedar trees and 11 Plane trees. With pay attention to the ages of these trees, it seems that the overshadow tree with and always green one of Cedar has the main role in the design of the garden and planting the Palne trees are only for making the visual quality of the garden high. It seems that using the Cedar tree in the Persian literature with the symbol of the beautiful human has effect in choosing this name.
Mostly trees of this garden have the age between 100- 470 years. In the late 15 years and especially after the year of 1386, the combination of factors was the reason of drought disaster and disease of trees.
Some of the follow factors were the reason of complete dryness of at least 112 trees and a large number between 30 to 50% injured either:
- Ignore food recipe trees
- Management problems
- Ignoring the expert’s comments
Cultural heritage authorities know the End of “shelf life” of trees because of their dryness.
In the first design of the garden, maintain symmetry had very special importance. Little by little and with the interference of the kings, this symmetry was decreased. This departure from the symmetry added in the axis of getting out of the garden and also inside the building that is shown after the Safavi period.
The Safavi summerhouse is located in the center of the garden. The other buildings of the Safavi garden contain the small bathroom and building entrance. Qajar summerhouse with the beautiful ceiling and walls paintings are located at the end of the garden and out of the symmetry axis.
Some of the buildings that they are added to the garden after the Safavi era are as follow:
- Royal bath
- National museum
- Karimkhani privacy
- Alcove room
National and international registration
The collection of Fin garden was registered in the Iran national effects in the year of 1935 B.C. The work of putting this effect in the world record was started in the year 2007 B.C. and finally, it finished in the winter of the year 2010 B.C.
Position and current use
Fin garden is located in the 9 KL distance of the center of Kashan city, at the end of the today Amir Kabir avenue in the little old Fin village. This garden is located near the Soleymanieh fountain and upward of the plain with the gentle slope. Today the part of the existence building assigned to the Chay Khaneh (Tearoom) and Kabab Khaneh(Kebab House). The access to Fin garden is possible from the Amir Kabir avenue. The public transportation such as minibus makes this possibility from the center of Kahan city.
Kashan international museum is located in the fin garden from the year 2006- 2010. Today visiting the different parts of the garden is possible. This collection near the Naqsh-e Jahan Square and Chehel Sotoon palace contains most of the visitors.