Hamadān Province is one of the 31 provinces of Iran. Its center is Hamadān city. The province of Hamadān covers an area of 19,546 km2.
The province lies in an elevated region, with the Alvand mountains, running from the north west to the south west. These are part of the Zagros mountain range of Iran. Hamadān enjoys temperate warm summers and relatively cold winters.
Hamadān province is one of the most ancient part of Iran. Relics of this area confirm this fact. The contemporary Hamadān is what is left of Ecbatana and it was the Medes’ capital before they formed a union with the Persians. The poet Ferdowsi says that Ecbatana was built by King Jamshid. The structures of city are related to Diva Aku, a King of the Medes from 700 BC. According to Greek records, this was called ‘Ekbatan’ and ‘Hegmataneh’ by this King, thus transformed into a huge capital During the Parthian era, Ctesiphon became capital of Persia, and Hamadān became the summer capital and residence of the Parthian rulers. After the Parthians, the Sassanids constructed their summer palaces in Hamadān as well. In the 11th century, the Seljuks shifted their capital from Baghdad to Hamadān once again.
The city of Hamadān was always at risk during the rise and fall of powers. It was completely destroyed during the Timurid invasion. But during the Safavid era the city thrived once more. In the 19th century, Hamadān surrendered to the Ottomans, but Hamadān was retaken by Nader Shah Afshari, and under the peace treaty between Iran and the Ottomans it was returned to Iran. The city of Hamadān lay on the Su Road and even in recent centuries enjoyed goc prospects in commerce and trade being on main road network in the western region of Iran.
Hamadān is the hometown of many poets and cultural celebrities. The city is also said to be of the world’s oldest continuously inhabited cities. Hamadān has always been well known for handicrafts like leather, ceramic, and carpets. Iran’s Cultural Heritage Organization lists 207 sites of historical and cultural significance in the city of Hamadān alone. The following languages are speaking in Hamadān province:
Persian language: Spoken by the majority of Hamadan city and county centers, it’s Iran’s official language.
Azerbāijāni language: Most of the people living in the north and western side of Hamadān city speak Azeri as of their native language. (562 villages of province).
Lurish: Most people living in the southern of province in Malayer, Nahavand and Samen (255 villages of province-Luri and Lak) speak Lurish.
Kurdish: Most people living in the west of province. (159 villages of province) speak Kurdish.
Reference: Cultural Heritage, Handicrafts & Tourism Organization of Iran, Iran Travel guide. Iran: 2018