Bou madaran, Yarrow or Milfoil Yarrow ( in traditional medicine texts Heznbel ) is the plant from the Star flowers family and Yarrow gender. It is an annual gramineous plant with the right foliage and stems with the height of 25-60 centimeters that is growing in Mediterranean and most parts of Iran. The colour of this plant is Glaucous with the long petioles and integrated long clusters flowers that they are located at the edge of its leaves. Its seed is almost spherical and smooth. Branches of these flowering plants have the special odor due to the presence of essential oil. Shepherd Musk in the commons medicine consumed as the mucus and it has also antiepileptic and soothing of shortness of breath and energy provider effects. It has the name of Moshk Daash either.

History

The Latin name of this plant is from the name of Achilles, the legendary Greek hero. It said that during the fighting in Troy (about 1200 years B.C.) used from Yarrow as the wound healing, prevent bleeding and infection. In addition, this plant (Yarrow) in the time of Saxon period used to ward off the evil eye and it was also used in the magic ceremony. Its common name mean “Nosebleed” shows the traditional application use of this plant in stanch of bleeding of the nose.

Botanical characteristics

It is the stable plant with the height of 20-90 centimeters and even more than that and has the leaves without petioles long and covered with the crack which has lots of narrow cuts. The White flowers of them are in the shape of small and complex Capitols, and the flowery crown is at the end of the stem. The Multiple small capitols are located at the end of them withy 4-8 Millimeter lengths and Widths of 2-5 Millimeters and in the every Capitols of them, 2 kinds of flowers, one of them white and in the tab shape located on the edge with lots of flowers and another one is in the tube shape and located in the middle area .All parts of the plant have the Penetrating smell with the bitter taste. One of the species of Yarrow is Mille folium that has the white flowers but the Santolina as another spice of the Yarrow from the part of size is sometimes smaller with the yellow colour flowers with aromatic and penetrating odor. Yarrow has the plant with the height of 10-35 centimeters. Other spices of this plant base on the kind and the place that they grow change in the height such as 10-80, 15-55, 15-40 centimeters.

In Writing

Yarrow powder has the light green colour with special aromatic odor and bitter taste and it has such these parts under the microscope: Non-secretory fibers that they are dedicated, part of the fibers of the stem, part of the petals with congress parenchymal, part of the rod flag and pollen grains spherical and barbed.

The habitat location and time of collecting

Yarrow is the weed of farms.  It is growing by itself in the plains, roadsides, the mountainous regions of  Europe, in the northern parts of  Iran, heights of Alborz mountain, in the Kerman mountains especially Haraz and Bid Khan Bardsir mountains. The time of flowering of this plant is from the end of May until the end of July. The best time of removal is in the first half of July. Yarrow in the dialect of North Khorasan and Azerbaijan is called Sarigol. It is from the Chicory family. It has different kinds that all of its names are the record and available in the Flor of  Ilam book. This plant is found in abundance in Ilam province. Yarrow with the yellow flower can be seen in the Lorestan and in Lorestani dialect it is called “Baranjdas”.

Usable parts of the plant

Flowering branches of the plant and oily extracts that extracted from the flowers of  Yarrow.

Products 

Available forms: capsule, extracts, powder, tea, tincture, bath lotion.

Therapeutic Properties

  • Flower:

Treatment of respiratory problem: anti-allergy, Mucosa astringent, Decongestants, Mucus, Of oil extract ( The resulting extracted from flowers ): Anti-inflammatory and anti-spasmodic, Skin moisturizer, Makeup Remover, Balms, Stimulating of hair growth, Topical healer (Used in the manufacture of shampoo)

  • Leaves:

Stimulating of blood clotting, Heal the wounds, chewing of the leaves of that is recommended for a toothache.

  • Aerial parts:

Treatment of digestive system problem is as follow:

  • Sedative gastrointestinal pain
  • Digestive stimulant
  • Stomach tonic
  • Carminative
  • Laxative
  • Lifter of anorexia
  • Bile-inducing
  • Elimination of hemorrhoids

Treatment of urogenital system problems is as follow:

  • Urinary tract antiseptic
  • Diuretic
  • Reduction of monthly bleeding and pain

Treatment of cardiovascular system problems:

  • Blood tonic
  • Stimulating blood circulation
  • Peripheral vascular relaxants
  • Lowering high blood pressure
  • Anti-cerebral thrombosis and arterial
  • Reinforcing varicose veins
  • Diaphoretic and antipyretic
  • anti-Virus
  • Antibacterial
  • Anti-worm
  • Insecticide
  • Cleansing and disinfection
  • Treat eczema and other skin problems
  • Pain and Soothing

How to use and Dosage

Boiling  4.2 grams of flowering branches with about a glass of water for 10 minutes. Make it smooth and after it is cooling use one to three times daily (With cubed or honey).

Lateral Complications

Yarrow is one of the plants with minimal side effects and in the consumable dose of flowering branches in the tail mode it has rare side effects. However, the following side effects attributed to it are as follow:

  • Drowsiness
  • Sedation
  • Nausea
  • Vomit
  • Anorexia
  • Sensitivity to light (Long-term use)
  • Contact dermatitis

Precautions and contraindications

Gestation (Stimulating of uterine contractions), Lactation, children under two years, sensitivity to Yarrow, and other family members of the composite, do not consume these drugs in the area around and inside their eyes.

Drug Interactions

With antacids, H2 Blockers, proton pump inhibitors reduce the effects of drugs with anticoagulant and antiplatelet (Heparin, warfarin, salicylate) increased risk of bleeding with antihypertensive drugs reducing excessive blood pressure with CNS (soothing, sleep aids, alcohol, opiate, and barbiturates) over sedation with iron minerals  reduced mineral absorption use within two hours from each other.

Pharmaceutical sectors

  • Floral branches
  • Leaf

The Yarrow flower is very useful for elimination of stomach and intestines worms. It is contraindicated for persons with seasonal allergies. It is helpful to improve indigestion and other digestive items. It is not recommended to use daily more than 25 grams for adults.

Therapeutic Properties

Anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, antispasmodic, sedative of gastrointestinal pain,

digestive stimulant, stomach tonic, carminative, laxative, bile-inducing, treatment of anorexia, strong antimicrobial, anti-Virus, antibacterial, anti-worm, cleansing, and disinfection, antiseptic of the Urinary tract, lowering high blood pressure, the relaxant of  Peripheral vascular, anti allergy, decongestants, mucus, mucosa astringent, analgesic and soothing, diuretic, distillate Yarrow.

Anti-brain thrombosis and arterial, strengthening varicose veins, wound healer, Hemostatic, make regular menstruation, a cause of  menstruation reduction of monthly bleeding and pain relief, elimination of hemorrhoids, balms, skin moisturizer.

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