Espand ( scientific name : ‘Peganum harmala’),is perennial herbaceous from dark Nitrariaceae .


Espand plant height is about 30 to 50 cm in length. It seems that this plant looks like the plants that have green leaves with narrow and irregular divisions. The flowers of this plant are coarse with thin Sepals and Large petals in white greenish color. Espand fruit is the capsule and it has multiple black seeds.

From thousand years ago Espand seeds are using in many different ritual cultures and spiritual world. It is especially used in ancient cultures of the Middle East.

The importance and holiness of Espand in history are full of value and some of the historians believe that the mythical plant is Espand.

Espand Flowers and specially Espand seeds are rich in alkaloids of the Beta- carboline group that they are all Monoamine oxidase inhibitor, so drink the Espand sodden in small quantities (1 to 3 grams) has the value of antidepressant and sedative and in large size (3 to 15 grams) has psychoactive for the body.

But because of the breakdown of the enzyme of monoamine oxidase in the liver by Espand alkaloids , the tyramine in food (alcohol, cheese, sausages and most protein and dairy products, fruits and fish remains, etc. )that normally break by this enzyme can be the reason of severe high blood pressure and heart rate, various headaches, shock, convulsions and even death if untreated soon. So from before 48 hours to after 48hours peoples must not use these kinds of foods that contains tyramine.

Some the others extremely dangerous interactions and fatal should be discontinued at least 2 weeks in advance:

Anti-depression pills such as Serotonin reuptake inhibitors like Citalopram, amphetamines, including ecstasy and methamphetamine (glass), cocaine, morphine.


Historical use

To protect from the evil eye in Turkey people hang dried capsules of Peganum in homes and cars. In Morocco highly use to protection from the Jen . In Syria, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Jordan and many other countries, like Iran use Espand dry seeds to protect from the eye and Strangers view put them in the fire and read a special prayer that is different in every culture and dies the smoke to themselves and the other persons in around. This tradition uses by the different persons from several religions such as Islam, Zoroastrianism, Christianity, Judaism, and Hinduism .

In some versions of prayers that are read in the time of the ceremony, they say the name of the ancient Zeostrian king Naqsha band that that first time received these names from five guardian angel named Yzdha. This tradition of burning Espand in the fire for the cleansed smoke Infiltrated to Hindi Kashmir and they use it in their wedding parties to remove darkness from bride and groom life.

In Iran and Turkey people prepared red color from the Espand and that was known as Iran red and used it to coloring wool , carpet and rug manufacturing. In fact, what made the red color to the Espand is Alkaloids that has Psychedelic properties, and to obtain such thick color that is appropriate for the coloring, high percentage of solved Alkaloids needs. With this High thick color, they can enter the body through contact with the skin and has the Psychedelic effect on the body. As past carpet weavers had directly contact with these colors so many historians believed that the stories about Flying carpets, geometric patterns, and designs on Persian rugs are from Alkaloids effect on the carpet weavers body.


Medicinal properties

In the body Monoamine, oxidase enzymes have the task to breakdown many natural molecules that people comnsumpted . One of the important molecules is indole alkaloids that is one of the most powerful psychotropics.

Btakarbvlyn alkaloids inside the Espand by inhibiting the monoamine oxidase enzyme cause that comes to be inactive psychoactive such as dimethyltryptamine that would be otherwise crushed completely by monoamine oxidase, now it can cross over into the brain without the hassle of liver and the effects of the psychotropic liver .

Espand is also causing to be prolonged and worsen the effects of the remain active alkaloids such as LSD and psilocybin.

In extracts of the traditional plants, it will use to increase milk , excretion of milk secretion, excretion of intestinal worms, treating rheumatism, increase sexual potency as well as a painkiller to went relieve stomach pain.

Roasting Espand seeds in order of someone is known as avoid the evil eye with some impressive.

In the laboratory, researches used Espand extracts to destroys microbes. Some extracts such as the result extracts Callus has the anti-microbial properties

Callus extracts have anti-microbial properties against microbes such as Staphylococcus aureus , Escherichia coli, and Candida albicans has shown.

Recently alkaloids Btakarbvlyn in plants and Espand seeds