Shiraz is located in the southwest of Iran on the Khoshk River” (The Dry River) seasonal river. It has a moderate climate and has been a regional trade center for over a thousand years. It is one of the oldest cities of ancient Persia and regarded as the cultural capital of Iran and the city of poetry, gardens and love. Shiraz is famous for its laidback atmosphere as well as its many historical and natural sites. This enchantress of a city leaves all visitors enamored with its attractions ranging from the ruins of the ancient Achaemenid capital in Persepolis, its necropolis Naqsh-e Rostam and the mysterious Cube of Zoroaster, the final resting place of Cyrus the Great in Pasargadae and the ruins of Bishapour to the lush Eram and Jahan-Nama gardens, extravagant Qajar mansions like Zinat ol-Molouk and Qavam houses, striking Jame Atiq and Nasir al-Molk mosques and the historic Quran Gate. May 5th is named the day of Shiraz by approve of the Parliament, on this occasion, every year, special events will be held by the municipality of Shiraz.
Shiraz is most likely more than 4,000 years old. The name Shiraz is mentioned in cuneiform inscriptions from around 2000 BC found in southwestern corner of the city. According to some Iranian mythological traditions, it was originally erected by Tahmoures Divband, and afterward fell to ruin. In the Achaemenian era, Shiraz was on the way from Susa to Persepolis and Pasargadae. In Ferdowsi’s Shahnameh it has been said that Artabanus V, the Parthian Emperor of Iran, expanded his control over Shiraz. Qasr-e Abu-Nasr (meaning “the palace of Abu-Nasr”) which is originally from Parthian era is situated in During the Sassanid era, Shiraz was in between the way connecting Bishapour and Gur to Istakhr. Shiraz was an important regional center under Sassanians. The city became a provincial capital in 693, after Arab invaders conquered Istakhr, the nearby Sassanian capital. As Istakhr fell into decline, Shiraz grew in importance under the Arabs and several local dynasties. The Buwayhid Empire (945-1055) made it their capital, building mosques, palaces, a library and extended city wall. It was also ruled by the Seljuks and the Khwarezmians before the Mongol conquest. In the 13th century, Shiraz was a leading center of the arts and sciences due to its many scholars and artists. The poet of Hafez, whose poems have captured the hearts of many throughout the world, hailed from this city. The tombs of Hafez, Sa’di, and Khaiou Kermani in the city are stunning structures erected in memory of these legendary bards.
Shirāz soon returned to prosperity under the rule of Karim-Khan-e Zand, who made it his capital in 1762. Employing more than 12,000 workers, he constructed a royal district with a fortress, many administrative buildings, a mosque and one of the finest covered Bazars in Iran. He had a moat built around the city, constructed an irrigation and drainage system, and rebuilt the city walls. However, Karim-Khan’s heirs failed to secure his gains. When Agha Mohammad Khan, the founder of the Qajar dynasty, eventually came to power, he wreaked his revenge on Shiraz by destroying the city’s fortifications and moving the national capital to Tehran. Although lowered to the rank of a provincial capital, Shiraz maintained a level of prosperity as a result of the continuing importance of the trade route to the Persian Gulf. Its governorship was a royal prerogative throughout the Qajar dynasty. Many of the famous gardens, buildings and residences built during this time contribute to the city’s present skyline.
Reference: Cultural Heritage, Handicrafts & Tourism Organization of Iran, Iran Travel guide. Iran: 2018