The 1500-year-old wall of Gorgan is the second largest wall in the world after China. When the construction of the Great Wall of China was completed, it was 1000 years since the construction of the brick wall of Gorgan. Most of this wall has been destroyed and only small parts of it are buried under the ground. An American archaeologist who photographed Iranian antiquities with his private plane in 1315, sees a red wall in Gorgan and photographs it. These photographs later became documents for archaeologists’ research. Tens of millions of brick molds were used in the construction of this huge wall, and they found a large number of brick kilns at close distances to the wall. To provide water, they dug an aqueduct and built a 200-kilometer-long water canal. The construction of this wall took ninety years. The wall of Gorgan, in comparison with the series of walls of China, is a monument that was built with honor, and many innocent people and slaves were not killed in it!

“Death” is perhaps the strangest title for travel. “Dark Tourism” is a type of tourism in which tourists go to visit cities and areas that have been affected. The word “black” refers to a dark chapter in history, areas where natural disasters such as earthquakes, floods, tsunamis, wars, killings, countless deaths or massacres have occurred; And finally, places that arouse the fear and excitement of tourists. For example, a trip to visit the Hiroshima Museum in Japan, the city that fell victim to the US atomic bombs, or a trip to Chernobyl, Ukraine, where the largest nuclear disaster in history occurred and nearly 5 million people were injured and about 5,000 centers Residents in Belarus, Ukraine and Russia became infected with radioactive particles.
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In Iran, visits to Ardabil cannibal castle, Nowshahr ghost lagoon, Jan Chabahar cemetery, Qasr prison museum in Tehran and Darvishkhan stone garden are classified in the black tourism group.

Zoroastrian Fire Temple in Yazd, the most important Zoroastrian fire temple in the world
? It was built about 80 years ago. When the Zoroastrians decided to build a fire temple for themselves, a Zoroastrian Indian joined them to build this fire temple. In India, Zoroastrians are known as “Parseh”, they are the same Zoroastrians who immigrated to India 300 years ago. At the top of the building is the symbol of “Forouhar”, which for Zoroastrians is the cross of Christians. The symbol of Forouhar is the image of an old man, which shows the value that Zarathustra attaches to the elderly. It is said that the fire that burns in the fire temple of Yazd has not been extinguished for about 1600 years. The worshipers are only allowed to enter the room of the fire headquarters. The fire burns inside a large bronze chamber. This fire was brought from Aqada Karian Larestan fire temple to Aqda in Yazd and was lit there for about 700 years, then from Aqda to Ardakan and finally to Yazd. He was first transferred to the house of one of the priests and later to the current location of the Zoroastrian fire temple in Yazd.

The crisis of the Corona virus has hit the world tourism industry in an unprecedented way, but the hope of nations for the future and the post-Corona era has made many countries prepare for the prosperity of the tourism industry. According to the American Forbes magazine, seven countries have the potential to become new tourism hubs in the world after the end of the Corona crisis, and our country, Iran, is one of them. Different historians have a special interest and passion for Iran in any field. There will be many tourist attractions available whenever you travel to Iran during the year, tourists can go skiing to Disney or hiking in the heart of the central deserts of Iran at the same time. The other six countries are Ethiopia, Myanmar, Georgia, the Philippines, Slovenia and Tunisia. Pristine and beautiful nature, many ancient and historical buildings, fascinating customs and authentic culture are things that can help to make these lesser-seen tourist destinations more global. Be sure to visit 140 km from Yazd city.

“Cypress Abarkooh”, the second oldest tree in the world in Abarkooh city of Yazd province, is a symbol of ancient Iran. Scientists have estimated the lifespan of the cypress tree to be between 4,000 and 8,000 years. The height of the tree is about 28 meters and the circumference of its trunk is about 18 meters. Fortunately, the Abarkooh cypress is still green and hardy. This cypress is a symbol of Ahuramazda (Zoroastrian god) in ancient Iran. In fact, it is said that the tree was first planted by him. There is another legend that believes that the cypress tree has a soul and this spirit Protects it. These days, the Yazd Cultural Heritage and Tourism Organization is in charge of protecting the Abarkooh cypress. In fact, the protective fence around it is one of the tasks of the organization to emphasize the importance of this natural place. The cypress tree of this giant tree, registered by the Cultural Heritage Organization of Iran, is waiting for UNESCO approval for world registration.

When traveling to Yazd, be sure to visit the Abarkooh tree located 140 km from Yazd.

Zanjan Province is one of the 31 provinces of Iran. Located in Iranian Azerbaijan with mostly Azerbaijani residences, it is part of Iran’s Regions 3. Its capital is Zanjan city. The province lies 330 km northwest of Tehran, connected to it by a freeway. Zanjan is the happiest province in Iran.

Soltaniyeh's tiles (interior designs)
Soltaniyeh’s tiles (interior designs)

Zanjan has an area of 22,164 km2, occupying 1.34% of the Iranian territory. In the northwest of Iran, Zanjan covers joint borders with seven provinces: East Azerbaijan, West Azerbaijan, Hamadan, Kurdistan, Gilan, Ghazvin and Ardabil. Zanjan has a highland climate characterized by cold snowy weather in the mountains and moderate climate in the plains in wintertime. The average maximum temperature of Zanjan is around 27 °C, whereas the average minimum temperature minimum stands at -19 °C. The average annual rainfall in the first month of spring stands at 72 millimeters. The rate of humidity in the morning stands by average at 74%and at noon at 43%.

Hamdollah Mostowfi, the Iranian traveler and historian, in his book claims that Zanjan was built by Ardashir I, the first king of the Sassanid Empire and named as “Shahin”. One important moment in the history of the city was in 1851 when the city became a center for the Babi uprisings, along with Neyriz and a fortress known as Sheikh Tabarsi.

The forces of the central government captured the Babi fort in Zanjān after a long siege. According to Bosworth, who quotes Hamdollah Mostowfi, the inhabitants during the Ilkhanid era spoke “pure Pahlawi”, a Median or northern form of Persian.

Zanjan city was a major city in pre-historic Azerbaijan. It is said that the Sassanid king Ardashir I of Persia, reconstructed the city and called it Shahin, but later it was renamed Zangan: the present name is the Arabicized form. In past times Zanjān’s name was Khamsen, which means “province with five tribes. Zanjam Province incorporates areas of the former Gerrus Province.

The people of Zanjān province speak Azerbaijani Turkish. Tati language is spoken in the northern part of the upper Tarom-e Olya on the slopes of the Alborz Mountains. In about 8 villages (Charzheh Balklur, Jamal Abad, Hezar-rud, Bandar-Gah, Siavoud, Nokian, Quhijan), they speak Tati. Hamdollah Mostowfi, in the book of Nishat al-Qoulub, written about 1339 AD, introduces Zanjāni people as Sunni But during the Safavid period, with the support of the Safavids, the Shi’a religion has gradually become prevalent.

Reference: Cultural Heritage, Handicrafts & Tourism Organization of Iran, Iran Travel guide. Iran: 2018

Yazd Province is one of the 31 provinces of Iran and located in the heart of the country. Its administrative center is the city of Yazd. The province has an area of 131,575 km2. The city of Yazd is the economic and administrative center of the province and therefore the most populated.

Yazd is the driest major city in Iran, with a yearly precipitation amount of 49 mm and only 23 days of precipitation, which is also the hottest city north of the Persian Gulf coast, with summer temperatures very frequently above 40 °C in blazing sunshine with no humidity. Even at night the temperatures in summer are rather intolerable. In the winter, the days remain mild and sunny, but in the morning the thin air and low cloudiness cause very cold temperatures that can sometimes fall well below 0 °C.

Malekzadeh House (Yazd Art House)
Malekzadeh House (Yazd Art House)

Yazd province was considered to be an important passage in historical periods. The area has been one of the most well-established routes for railways, postal and harbor centers during the Achaemenes period. Since roads maintenance in Yazd was so important, the Al-Mouzaffar family came to power as they used to be in charge of roads maintenance of the Meybod district. This province has been somewhat immune from the conflicts and wars took place during Iran’s history. The harshness of the roads, along with the limitation of water resources, has been a major obstacle to conquer this area by some of the great and small governments throughout history. There are so many signs and constructions in Yazd province which indicate to the depth of culture and civilization in the land during pre and post-Islamic period.

Tomb of Seyed Roknildin -Negin Mohamadi Fard
Tomb of Seyed Roknildin -Negin Mohamadi Fard

The majority of the people of Yazd are Persians, and speak Persian with Yazdi accent which is different from Persian accent of Tehrān; but there are also small populations of other Iranian ethnicities in the city such as Azerbaijanis and Qashqais who speak Persian as their second language.

Reference: Cultural Heritage, Handicrafts & Tourism Organization of Iran, Iran Travel guide. Iran: 2018

Iran - Yazd - Amir Chakmaq Complex
Iran – Yazd – Amir Chakmaq Complex

West Azerbaijan Province is one of V the 31 provinces of Iran. It is in the northwest of the country, bordering Turkey, Iraq and Azerbaijan’s Nakhichevan Autonomous Republic, as well as the provinces of East Azerbaijan, Zanjan and Kurdistan. It is separated from Armenia by Turkey’s short border with the Azerbaijan Republic. The province of West Azerbaijan covers an area of 39,487 km2. The capital and largest city of the province is Uremia.

With an area of 43,660 square km, including Lake Uremia, the province of West Azerbaijan is located on the northwest of Iran. The climate of the province is largely influenced by the rainy winds of the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean. Cold northern winds affect the province during winter and cause heavy snow.

The major known ancient civilization in the region was a state between Urartian and Assyrian sphere of influence. Mannaeans in turn spoke a language related to Urartian. After the fall of Assyria, the region was known as Mantiene (or Matiene) in Greek sources. Matiene bordered on Atropatene situated east of Lake Urumiä. In the late 4th century the Sassanids incorporated the area into the neighbouring Adhurpadagan satrapy to the east. At 7th century this area was under Islamic rule. After Babak Khorramdin revolted, the grip of the Abbasid caliphate weakened, allowing some native dynasties to rise. By the first half of the 11″ century the Byzantine emperors were actively trying to found off their eastern territories, in an attempt to absorb the unstable Armenian dynasties.

West Azerbaijan possesses a rich culture, stemming from Azeri and Kurdish traditions. Many local traditions, such as music and dance, continue to survive among the peoples of the province. As a longstanding province of Persia, West Azerbaijan is mentioned favorably on many occasions in Persian literature by Iran’s greatest authors and poets:

All the nobles and grats of Iran,

Choose from Azarbaijan, Rey, and Gorgan

Tehran Province is one of the 31 provinces of Iran. It covers an area of 18,909 square kilometers (7,301 sq. mi) and is located to the north of the central plateau of Iran. The province was put as part of First Region with its secretariat located in its capital city, Tehran, upon the division of the provinces into 5 regions solely for coordination and development purposes on June 22, 2014. Tehran Province borders Mazandaran Province in the north, Qom Province in the south, Semnan Province in the east, and Alborz Province in the west. The metropolis of Tehran is the capital city of the province and of Iran. Tehran Province is the richest province of Iran as it contributes approximately 29% of the country’s GDP. Furthermore, it houses approximately 18% of the country’s population. Tehran Province is the most industrialized province in Iran; 86.5% of its population resides in urban areas and 13.5% of its population resides in rural areas. The province gained importance when Tehran was claimed the capital by the Qajar dynasty in 1778.

The province of Tehran has over 13 million inhabitants and is Iran’s most densely populated region. The largest rivers of this province are Karaj River and Jaj-Roud River. Environmentally, the climate of Tehran province in the southern areas is warm and dry, but in the mountain vicinity is cold and semi-humid, and in the higher regions is cold with long winters. The hottest months of the year are from mid-July to mid-September when temperatures range from 28 °C (82 °F) to 30 °C (86 °F) and the coldest months experience 1 °C (34 °F) around December January. Average annual rainfall is approximately 200 millimeters (79 in). On the whole, the province has a semi-arid, steppe climate in the south and an alpine climate in the north.

Vista de Teherán desde la Torre Milad, Irán

Tehran Province has several archeological sites indicating settlements dating back several thousand years. Until 300 years ago, Rey was the most prominent city of the province. However, the city of Tehran rose to become the larger city and capital of Iran by 1778, and since then has been the political, cultural, economic, and commercial nucleus of Iran. Tehran has over 1.500 historical sites of cultural significance registered with the Cultural Heritage Organization of Iran. The oldest of these in Tehran province are the remains of two sites in Firouz-Kouh County that date back to the 4th millennium BCE.

Palacio de Golestán, Teherán, Irán
Tehran Milad Tower
Tehran Milad Tower
National Garden, Tehran Azadi Tower

Even though the Tehran is the meeting point of many ethnic and linguistic groups, it is dominated by the Persian culture and language, as well as the Shiite branch of Islam, with which the majority of the population identifies.

The Islamic Revolution had a distinctive cultural impact. Within this framework, traditional arts such as calligraphy and music have seen a revival, with many educational institutional and galleries involved. Alongside the more traditional centers of cultural activity, cultural centers, and libraries were established to cater to the young urban population. Tehran is modern, vibrant city.

National Garden, Tehran
National Garden, Tehran

Its skyline is dominated by snowcapped mountains and a proliferation of high-rise buildings. Tehran’s architecture is eclectic; while many buildings reflect the international Modernist style, others display postmodern, Neoclassical, and traditional Persian styles, others display postmodern, Neoclassical, and traditional Persian styles. Tehran’s vibrancy is marked by large crowds of young people, numerous shopping malls, commercial streets, and bustling public squares. The city mixes tradition with modernity and religious imagery with different lifestyles. From art to history and anything else you can imagine, are available in Tehran museums. Tehran is the biggest and most important educational center of Iran. Today there are nearly 50 major colleges and universities in total in Greater Tehran. Since the establishment of Dar-ol-Fonoun in the mid 1800s, Tehran has amassed with a large number of institutions of higher education.

Palacio de Golestán, Teherán, Irán
Palacio de Golestán, Teherán, Irán

Reference: Cultural Heritage, Handicrafts & Tourism Organization of Iran, Iran Travel guide. Iran: 2018

Tabriz, the City of Compassion, is one of the most historically important cities of Iran, which played a major role in the Constitutional Revolution of the early 1900s. Some of the historical sites in Tabriz such as the magnificent Blue Mosque of Tabriz and the 700-year-old Rab’-e Rashidi University have been devastated by the several earthquakes which have rocked the city throughout its history. The ruins, however, still tell of their glorious past. Once the city where Qajar Crown Princes resided before coming into power, Tabriz is the city of extravagantly decorated mansions, many of which have been turned into museums.

Arg Alishah

The early history of Tabriz is not well-documented. The earliest inscription about Tabriz, referring to the city as Tarui or Tauris, is on the Assyrian King Sargon II’s epigraph in 714 BC. Tabriz has been chosen as the capital for some rulers commencing from Atropates era. A recent excavation at the site of the Iron Age museum, in the north of the Blue Mosque site, uncovered a graveyard of 1″ millennium BC. More likely the city has been destroyed multiple times either by natural disasters or by the invading armies. The earliest elements of the present Tabriz are claimed to be built either at the time of the early Sassanids in the 3rd or 4th century AD, or later in the 7th century. The Middle Persian name of the city was T’awres.

El Gölü (Şah Gölü) - panoramio
El Gölü (Şah Gölü) – panoramio

After the Muslims conquest of Iran, the Arabic Azd tribe from Yemen resided in Tabriz. The development of post-Islamic Tabriz began as of this time. The Islamic geographer Yaqut al-Hamawi says that Tabriz was a village before Rawwad from the tribe of Azd arrive at Tabriz, In 791 AD, Zubaidah, the wife of Abbasid caliph Harun al-Rashid, rebuilt Tabriz after a devastating earthquake and beautified the city so much as to obtain the credit for having been its founder.

Goymachid

In 1501, Shah Ismail I entered Tabriz and proclaimed it the capital of his Safavid state. In 1514, after the Battle of Chaldiran, Tabriz was temporarily occupied by the Ottomans. Tabriz retaken by Iranian forces and it remained the capital of Safavid Iranian Empire until 1548. In that year Shah Tahmasp 1 transferred it to Qazvin to avoid the growing threat of Ottoman army to his capital.

Thanks to the geographical features and communications with nearby countries’ enlightenment movements, Tabriz became the center of the Iranian Constitutional Revolution movements between 1905 and 1911, which led to the establishment of a parliament in Iran and the formation of a constitution. Sattar Khan and Bagher Khan, two Tabrizi reformists who led Tabriz people’s solidarity against absolute monarchy, had a great role in Constitutional Revolution. In 1909, Tabriz was occupied by the Russian forces. Four months after the constitutional revolution’s success, in December 1911, the Russians reinvaded Tabriz. After crushing the local resistance by invading Russian troops, they started suppressing the constitutional revolutionaries and residents of the city. 1200 Tabriz residents were executed following the invasion Russian troops. As a result of the campaign, Tabriz was occupied by the Russian forces between 1911 and 1917.

Reference: Cultural Heritage, Handicrafts & Tourism Organization of Iran, Iran Travel guide. Iran: 2018