Masouleh is the historical and tourism village and it is one of the lush with good climate and fog, in the northern of Iran . Masouleh has cool summers and snowy winters, either. Masouleh is located in the Southwestern province of Gilan in the Fooman Sardar Jangal Part, this city has 60 KM distance from the Rasht city , 36 KM distance from the Fuman city and 20 KM distance from the Maklavan city.

The old way of the Masouleh To Khalkhal that has been in the past the communication highway between Golan and Azerbaijan , in order to protect the environment, Masouleh pristine nature and spiritual heritage and preventing the degradation of natural resources, and manipulation, with the involvement of environment Protection Agency and Masouleh Cultural Heritage protected in the last decades from the Gilan.

This city in 1354 Solar Hegira have already been registered by 1090 number and put in the list of  national monuments as cultural and natural heritage. Masouleh lost most of its population during the construction of new link road between the Gilan village and Azerbaijan and as well as famine in 1320.

After registered the Masouleh as a cultural and natural heritage, the allow to construction and development of this village denied  by the municipality (founded 1311), Cultural Heritage and Tourism Organization and the Environmental Protection Agency, and as a result, thousands of residents of  this village over the past seventy years, were living in different parts of  Iran, especially Tehran. Right now this city is protecting on issues such as rock falls, floods, landslides, earthquakes, capture to develop civil and human destruction. Masouleh is waiting in line for registration as a World Heritage Site to having more protections.  The original language of Masouleh people is as same as the language of the people in the West of Gilan and South of Azerbaijan. Their language is Taleshi that is very close to Avesta and Tati language. The religion of them is Islam and they are Shiite.

Masouleh as a Iran tourist village

Masouleh including the extent of one hundred hectares the area under the protection of cultural heritage and natural resources is one of the best climate points of Iran that tens of thousands of tourists each year. Masouleh historical & tourism village is famous in the world due to a unique architecture. Masouleh with high mountains, forest, and Greenfield summer is one of the tourism locations in the northern regions of Iran with abundant natural visual effects especially in the late spring and summer and Shah Moalem peaks in Masouleh with 3050 meters high  is  the highest point of  the Gilan and interesting  location for mountaineering groups. Two hotels are in the traditional architecture parts of  the Masouleh and several hotels are on the road that leading to the village of Iranian and foreign welcome tourists and also they are lots of  hostels and rented houses in this area.

History of Masuleh Stair Stepped village

About the eighth century AD (14th century) the old people of  Masouleh that is located in 6 km North West of the village with people from different parts of the vast land of Iran moved to the point that now known as Masouleh. This village lost most of its population due to the following the construction of new link road between the village of Gilan and Azerbaijan, and also the famine in 1320. Caravansaries communication highway of  North and Azerbaijan were lost boom and the market traded leather and metal industries fell away. In the wake of  that, most of the wealthy people of the village emigrated to the capital and other major cities and abroad. After registering the village as a cultural and natural heritage, Architectural Heritage Department and Environmental Protection Agency did not allow to construct and develop the city. Future generations settled in spotter of Iran, especially in the Northern part and Tehran.

In the 10 km above the new village remains the old village with artifacts and human  such as stone oven … that have been scattered in the area range which can be counted among the arte facts . Archaeological excavations conducted have been found the old pottery village belonging to the fifth to eighth centuries AD that they are accurate remarkable historical documentation. From 1385 Masouleh old village was in the national index.

The geography of the Masuleh village

Today Masouleh city is a small village consist of traditional architecture that is with 100 hectares Green mountains located in the deep heart of nature is in the geographical coordinates 48 degrees, 59 minutes east longitude, and 37 degrees, nine minutes north latitude  and the range of it from the north of the city to Masal, from the south to the Olia Tarom and from the East to the Fuman plain and from the west  to the Khalkhal province ( Zanjan province), central area of village overlooks from three directions North, South and West to the mountain and from the East to the beautiful valley its height from the Free sea is 1050 meters with Mountainous climate with cool summers and cold and snowy winters. Surrounding of Masouleh covered by forests and the main connectivity road is a prolate way to the Fuman. Masouleh has a unique architecture. Driveway enclosure and roofs both use as the sidewalk. The village architectural fabric is formed during the Zandieh and small streets and many stairs do not let anyone to use the motor vehicle. Masouleh architecture is described in one sentence: Top buildings courtyard are roofs of the low buildings. Numbers of floors of  buildings are usually 2.

Neighborhoods villages of Masouleh

Masouleh Has a bazaar with 4 floors  and 4 main parts:

  • Khane bar (Khuna var)
  • Masjid bar (Maza var)
  • Key Sar ( contains: Kafa Key sar and Ben Key sar)
  • Asade Mahale ( Asamal)

All of them in the independent mood have immediately associated with town Bazar. Now in Masouleh there are more than 350 residential units that are in the past (100 years ago), the number of units was 600. There is more than 120 commercial units within its market, More than 4 caravansarais, 2 Treasure bathrooms, More than 33 public fountains ( Khuni), 10 Mosque and 5 Shrines indicative of prosperity the city in recent periods. Masouleh population has declined over the past 60 years.

Economy of  Masuleh

Being on the former communications highway and existence of eight caravansaries indicates this content that many peoples in Masouleh have been traded. Masouleh handicrafts contain : Wood and metal industries was common until about the sixties  which is now completely destroyed . Now the village economy is based on tourism.

Genesis of Masuleh

The old Masouleh which is located in the “eight kilometers West Road of Khalkhal” was the original and primary settlement of the persons from Masouleh that now a day remain a stone wall building from that time. In the first archaeological excavations of the Fuman city that took place in September 1374 by the Archaeology Institute of Gilan Cultural Heritage, it was found that from fifth to eighth centuries this old village was one of the most important centers ijn the field of  Metalworking . Also, Glazed pottery with various colors that have the characteristics of Seljuk time was discovered in this area this district because of its historical importance and validity was recorded in the national index in September 1385. About Masouleh persons moved to the current location there are many different opinions that one of the most important of that is one of the grandchildren of the first imam of Shias with one of the children of  the seventh Shiite imam Musa al-Kazim whose his tomb is located in Astaneh Ashrafieh in Gilan was wounded in a battle near Tarom of Zanjan city and took the Masouleh village way and died in the current location of Masouleh and w as buried there .

After that gradually the people from Masouleh were built their houses around his tomb and thus the current Masouleh was formed.  One traditionary says the reason of Masouleh persons migration to the current location was due to great earthquake of 890 AD and also another traditionary mentioned the epidemics of plague in the year 943 AH in Iran as the reason of displacement. But later generations, not immanent in the new location and this city that was the trading center and highway between Azerbaijan and Gilan and Zanjan and Bazaars, caravanserais and metal and nonmetal industry and was boomed in these ways had a dramatic decline. In a part of  time Masouleh was the center of gravity of the Gilan , Zanjan and-and Azerbaijan and it was one of the special importance of this village but with the creation of the main ways between Gilan and Azerbaijan, Gilan, and Zanjan from the other routes, Masouleh lost its economic boom and , followed by, its population occupation of the country during World War II in the year 1320 and the chaos from it , was effected on a Masouleh native people immigration . Masouleh municipal was founded in 1311 AH but it was closed in 1318 and it began to work again in 1341 AH. Masouleh persons have a great role in the history of the Forest movement against the invasion of  Russia and Great Britain. Masouleh persons helped force Forest and someone like martyr Babaghlamly fought alongside them.

Masuleh language

The Original language of Masouleh persons as same as the people in West of Gilan and South of Azerbaijan Republic is “Talysh language” . Talysh language is one of the north-western Iranian languages and it is also for the person who speaks in this way. Talysh language is from the family of Caspian languages and it is very close to Tati language. “Talesh language” is also cognate with the other languages of Caspian Bank like “Gilaki” and “Mazandarani” but it has  significant differences with them. Tat’s , Taleshy’s and Mazandarani’s peoples speak different languages that they are different from Persian language and similar to the Medo-Persian and Avesta languages. Talysh language is similar to Avesta and Kurdish languages. This language is close to the Azerbaijani ancient language. Talysh language is contained as a northwest of the Iranian languages that is very similar to Medo-Persian , Azeri, Avesta, old Azeri languages.

Origins of Masuleh people

Being Masouleh in the communication highway of  Gilan and Azerbaijan and also having 8 Caravansaries confirms the fact that many old people have been commuting  in this town and many people have been residing in the village over the years due to immigration and marriage. So you cannot say that the Masouleh persons are originally from Talesh and from the past as their language is similar to the Mare- Perthian they could easily have verbal communication with various Iranian tribes base on the language that they speak and also similarities to Avesta and Kurdish languages. Also, this language is close to the ancient Azerbaijani language. “Talysh language”  is considered as Iranian Northwest languages and also it has lots of similarities with old Azeri language. Although Taleshi and Gilaki (the main language of center and East of Gilan ) are different from each other but from the past Masouleh persons speak Gilaki easily together due to associated with Fuman and also because of the multitude of relationship with Azerbaijan , most merchants were familiar with the Turkish language. Maybe you can define Masouleh persons as Non-agricultural people, and often have industry and trade, Iran consists of different ethnicities who knew Talysh language and they lived several generations together in the current location of the Masouleh And also due to speak a certain kind of  Talysh language, on behalf of the people of the towns and nearby villages this village refers Masouleh.

Masuleh village culture

There is another significant point in the culture of Masouleh people,  and this is that they are hospitable. What is left from the-the last rituals of  Masouleh, is the Muharram traditional ceremony that it is the cultural-touristic attraction of Masouleh.

And it attracts huge crowds annually and the interesting thing is that, unlike many places, preacher and miracle play eulogies and actors do not get any money. As possible constructions in Masouleh is limited (only failure reconstructed) inhabitants and is fixed people that they are living there is lower than 1000 persons but dozens of Masouleh residents are still living in major cities of Iran and outside Iran. Masouleh Restaurant in Chicago, in the United States of America, represents the Masouleh village and Iranian and Gilani foods with the great managements of Mr. Nasiri Masouleh.

The appellation of Masuleh name

Masouleh name or with the original pronounce Masouleh in the Taleshi language from the ninth to the eighth century and later on used it in its current form. Someone said its came from the name of a mountain near the Masouleh village with the name of  “Mahsalar”. They believe that this area was called “Masalar” at first  and  because of the plurality of application its transformed to Masouleh.

In another narrative, the word Masouleh is formed from the combination of two words : “Moss” and “Ole”. The first part of the Iranian culture means mountain and barrier and the second part is also meant high which in a combination with a diminutive “in” has come with the meaning of “like”.  So “Masouleh”  can have the meaning  of “high mountain” or “Mount as”. Whit relying on Sanskrit and Persian Pahlavi it has also the meaning of the “little moon” or “land of the tiny moon”. Someone know this name derived from the name of “Mosul” in the Kurdish city  and believe that the primary persons of  Masouleh were Kurdish and had Izadi religion. Now if we pass from the history of Masouleh Muharram especial events and funeral in this Wadi there has not been paying attention to a simple difference between different  kinds of  “s” and also the similarity of the name of Masouleh and Masal (the city near the Masouleh) so it seems superficial interpretation  this interpretation also makes other stories by biased or uneducated people that they had related Yazidis to the Yazid Umayyad Caliph…in another word Masouleh is the Arabic and Compound word from the words : “Ma”, “soo” ,“leh”  with the meaning of “The place where poverty and ugliness don’t have any place”. Many researchers don’t know such justified and traditions properly. What seems more correct is due to the similarity of the name of the Masouleh and Masal , (A city near the Masouleh) and the village with the name of Khani Masouleh in the Masal city and also since at the beginning this name was related to the Old Masouleh(Talesh language Khan Masouleh) the main core of the Masouleh persons that have been moved to 8 KM lower from the Old Masouleh. Depending on the weather , land slope, it made for easier defended against marauding bands and also for adroit chain and as well as evidence such as Masouleh veterans dialect that even back to the Persian before the Arabs arrival. Masoulehis the city with very unsaid and unknown  parts.

Masuleh registered in The World Heritage List

Masouleh global record from was put on the agenda from the year 90, but the lack of an integrated urban management and there were 11 Electrical  Department , Water and Wastewater buildings,Telecommunications, meteorology, cooperative handicraft, health center, business unit, two residential units is a barrier in the green airspace over the global village .

To fix this problem in the first stage proposed that two office buildings of electricity and telecommunications temporarily transmitted for 3 to 5 years into the Masouleh tissue. That with the demolition of these two buildings the free part of green Masouleh airspace and the  registration process will continue.

However, from the year 76 downstream areas of the historic fabric of the Masouleh was in the green airspace and construction was forbidden, but the problem of 11 heterogeneous buildings which are located in this part of the historical city has not been resolved yet.

Now device management server at a Masouleh historic city is separate. That based on the UNESCO condition should be integrated management. Masouleh historical city in 30.5.1354 was known as the first living historical city of our country and has been registered as a complete set in the national index Iran.

Alandan lake with the 17-hectare area that is at the time of raining come to have the 30-hectare area, is located in the Alandan village in the Chahardangeh part of Sari city.This natural effect with the quaternary dating and the number of 263, recorded in 14 of  November month of  2015 in the national index.

The water of this lake is only supplied through the precipitation and no river is flowing into it. In fact, the placement and type of soil of this lake are triggered that due to the little rain, all waters of precipitation (rain or snow) flows toward this lake. Also, the impermeability of soils this lake will increase the survival of water inside it.

Alendan lake (Persian: دریاچهٔ الندان) is a lake with 17 hectare span located in Sari County. This lake belongs to Quaternary era and has recorded in The national index of Iran in 2015.
Alendan lake (Persian: دریاچهٔ الندان) is a lake with 17 hectare span located in Sari County. This lake belongs to Quaternary era and has recorded in The national index of Iran in 2015.

The approximate distance of this lake from Sary is 70 km and it is in the way of the Sary-Semnan row that is at the height of 1300 meters above the sea level. Broadleaf forests are surrounding the lake that is in the spring the habitats of Violets and Elzi(Wild chives) and spices of fragrant and medicinal vegetables.

In the summer the river that is flowing on the other side of the lake provides fresh water to drink. In the Autumn Medlar and some, the other types of shrubs will have lots of products here.  In the winter here is the location for the wild ducks and in the recent years with the release of the fish in this lake the applications have risen. Some important industrial trees with the names of  Rush, Hornbeam, Oak, Mulch, Linden are around this lake that they have industrial and aesthetic value. The water of this water reservoirs is the main resource of water of around paddies.


Khazar Sea, saltwater lake in southeastern Europe and southwestern Asia, the largest inland body of water in the world. The Caspian Sea (Khazar Sea) is bordered on the west by Azerbaijan and Russia, on the northeast and east by Kazakhstan, on the east by Turkmenistan, and on the south by Iran.

People correctly associate seals and sea lions with marine environments. Almost all pinniped species are found in the oceans and along their coasts and island shores, but a few kinds of seals are residents of landlocked lakes. The Caspian Sea (Khazar Sea), which is the world’s largest salt lake, is home to the Caspian seal, Phoca caspica. How did it get here? Scientists believe the ancestor of the Caspian seal swam upriver from the North Atlantic Ocean to reach the Paratethys, a huge inland sea. Then, about 5 or 6 million years ago, the Paratethys began to dry up: Today’s Black, Caspian, and Aral seas are its remains, and the Caspian seal is a legacy of the time when a salt sea stretched from Europe to Central Asia.

Species and Habitats in Khazar Sea

The Caspian Sea (Khazar Sea) offers a variety of habitats in which well-adapted species thrive.

Principal habitats for fish species
For a fish to complete its life cycle it must move through 3 different habitats: spawning habitat, pasturing habitat and wintering habitat. For fish species with limited migration range these three habitats coincide. Semi-migrating fish species may find pasture habitats out at sea, but during the wintering and spawning seasons they move to rivers. Some marine fish carry out considerable migrations within the seawater area, while others may inhabit relatively limited areas of the sea.

Semi-migrating fish species:
These fish spawn in the deltas and downstream reaches of rivers and use the fresh water deltas as pasture habitats. The optimal levels of salinity for most of the commercial fish is approximately 8g/l. During years of high water levels, optimal saline waters cover all of the northern Caspian as well as coastal areas adjacent to the river mouths within the Middle Caspian zone.

Migrating fish species:
Sturgeon – the most valuable commercial fish – spawn in the rivers of the Caspian basin. These fish migrate upstream from the river basins for hundreds of kilometers. Sturgeons select areas with pebbly or hard sandy ground as spawning grounds. However, the construction of dams have been restricted fish monement to the lower reaches of the rivers prevent the sturgeon from migrating up the rivers to spawn and has led to a decrease in the natural reproduction.

Marine fish species:
Commercial marine fish of live throughout the Caspian Sea. Different geographical regions within the sea play specific roles: the shallow northern regions are important for reproduction as well as for development at early stages of life.

Principle habitats for bird species

The Caspian Sea (Khazar Sea) is situated on major migratory routes for many bird species and it is therefore of important value for the whole of Eurasia. The majority of migratory birds stem from the Siberian-Asian region. In the autumn the birds concentrate on the northeast and northern coasts of the Caspian. Gradually, they begin moving along the western coast towards the south. At this point different species may take different routes; some continue moving south along the western coast others migrate further west along the Caucasian mountain range. The birds originating from the central and northwestern districts of Russia migrate to the seacoast along the Volga. In the delta area of the Volga this stream of migrant birds merges with those from Asia. The Ural and Emba rivers are also important migratory paths. During spring, the migration routes move back in the opposite direction.

Principle habitats for mammals

The only sea mammal living in the Caspian Sea (Khazar Sea)  is the seal. In the winter the seals concentrate in the Northern Caspian, near edges of ice packs, where they carry out their whelping, and molting. A small proportion of seals remain on islands near the coast of Turkmenistan throughout the winter. In the summer the seals migrate to the Middle and Southern Caspian in order to fatten up. However, a few do remain in the Northern Caspian.

Sturgeon Worth Their Weight in Gold

Historically, 90% of the World’s caviar has come from the Caspian Sea (Khazar Sea) region and its tributary rivers. The supply, however, is shrinking rapidly. The effects of pollution, loss of spawning habitat, increased poaching and over-fishing has proven to be devastating to the sturgeon population and, consequently, caviar production.

After the arrival of Islam in Iran, there were many mosques throughout Iran and in different historical periods. One of these historical mosques which its architecture and glory is well-known for domestic and incoming tourists, is Vakil mosque built by Karim Khan Zand (1187 AH). The mosque is located next to Vakil Bazaar and the Vakil Bath, creating a massive complex.

History of Vakil Mosque

At the time of Karim Khan-e Zand (Vakil oroaya) (1187 AH), Shiraz was the capital of Zandieh government and it was Karim Khan’s attention. In this period, many monuments were built that Vakil Mosque except them.

Two narrations have been quoted from Karim Khan about construction of this mosque, which we define it further:

During the construction, architects emphasized the mimbar, altar, inscriptions and tiles because they represented the glory of the mosque, but Karim Khan who was one of the most popular kings in Iran history, emphasize on the people’s needs. So he encouraged the workers to build W.C the best possible .He said that “If God would like to bless me, it is because of this service and not the mosque because the people need it more.”

It is also quoted that Karim Khan emphasized to build the mosque as soon as possible, so he invited from musicians to play music in order to creation a happy atmosphere and the workers do their job better.

Pierre Loti has wrote in his travelogue “Today, fortunately, I succeeded to visit Karim Khan Mosque, if I stay here for a while; I will enter all the places that are completely prohibited for me now. The people of this city are very gentle and kind to me. The architecture design and pattern of the mosque is simple but there are Mina Kari (Enamel), green and red colors everywhere, and this glorious art exceed its limit. Cannot be found anywhere without Enamel. We are in a turquoise and Lajevardi (Persian blue) palace, now.”

Architecture of Vakil Mosque

The mosque’s plan is two-porch and has two Shabestan (a large columned hall in the mosque) in the direction of south and north. The different parts of the mosque include entrance, hallway, atrium, mimbar, Shabestan and porch have beautiful design, but the three arches of the mosque have another magnificent view and are seen more in the photos.

One of the features of Iranian architecture is Mardomvari (Humanism) in the opinion of Dr. Karim Pirnia, in the sense that the each part of the monument is proportionate to people and their needs. This feature is also observed in Vakil mosque. The size of Shabestan and the lack of minarets and ornament in order to create a spacious space for prayers are examples of this characteristic.


To visit the mosque, you will pass through an entrance that its ornamentation; tile and calligraphy are beautiful examples of Islamic architecture. There is also an inscription with some Qur’an’s verses. Two companions with a height of 8 and a width of 3 meters have given it a special glory. After passing through the short hallway, you will be directed to the atrium.


The mosque has two courtyards that the atrium has a dimension 65 x 60 and a smaller yard is 35 x 20. There are rectangular pools in both courtyards. The smaller yard is located in the northeast; you will arrive through pass a small hallway.

Arch and porch

In the northern porch, a high arch has a beautiful effect with two tiles finials. Other arch is named pearl; it is decorated with Haft-rang (Seven color) tiles and geometric and herbal pattern. There are inscriptions with Quran verses contents. In front of the pearl arch (Morvarid arch), there is another arch decorated with engraved stones and Haft-rang (Seven color) and Moraq tiles. On the west side there are 11 arches decorated with tiles and Quran verses. Symmetrically, there are the same arches on the eastern side. Behind these arches, a colonnade shows tile and beautiful paintings.

Shabestan, altar and mimbar

On the southern and eastern sides of the mosque, there are two shabestan that the southern Shabestan is considered as one of the beautiful ornaments of Iran mosques. What makes this part of the mosque attractive is the integrated pillars that have a mysterious simplicity. Forty-eight spiral columns in four rows and a height of 5 meters in addition to keeping the roof, has provided eye-catching beauty.

The mimbar of the mosque is made up of marble, and because of 14 imams in the Shia religion, its steps are 14. It is quoted that the stone has been brought from Maragheh and it was very expensive with the facilities of that time.

The altar is located on the right side of the mimbar which ornamented by calligraphy, Moqarnas, which done professional by architects.

History & Location of Sa’dabad Palace

Sa’dabad Palace is a cultural and historical complex built by the Qajar and Pahlavi dynasty of Iran in the Shemiran area of Tehran. The complex contains 18 palaces belonged to the royal families of Qajar and Pahlavi, in a unique and beautiful garden.The complex was first inhabited by Qajar monarchs and royal family in the 19th century. After an expansion of the compounds, Reza Shah lived there in the 1920s. And his son, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi moved there in the 1970s. Saadabad Palace lies from the north to the Alborz Mountains, from the east to Golabdare, from the west to Velenjak and from the south to Tajrish. Since 1979 revolution, this plant was transformed into the museum. Two palaces, namely, the (white) palace and the green palace, are open to the public, as palace museums and other buildings have been allocated to their specialty for various types of exhibitions.


The White Palace:

This is the main palace of the Saadabad Palace and the largest mansion in this collection. It is also called the palace museum of Melat, but due to it’s white color it is also known as the white palace. Right outside of the entrance you can see these pair of boots attached to the ground, as if they were a part of a bigger statue, there is many stories, but all of them confirm that these are in fact Reza Shah’s boots. Some say that this was a full statue and they ruined it during the revolution and others say that it was only the boots as a symbol of power and strength.

There is also another statue that catches one’s eye, it’s the “Archer Arash” statue, Arash is a mythological character that also represents Iran’s rich culture and literature. This statue is over 5 meters tall and located right in front of the main entrance.

This place used to be the Shah’s (Mohammad Reza shah) summer vacation spot. It was also used for formal events of the royal family. There are 54 rooms in this palace with about 10 different halls. The first king of Pahlavi, reza Shah ordered to build this palace in 1932, which was completed by 1937. But it was used effectively three years later. Many artists and engineers were involved in building this palace. Layout plan was designed by Mr.Khorsandi and construction drawings were developed by Leon Taavosian, Pesyan and Russian Boris. This palace is built in the area of ​​2164 square meters; It is a two-storey building and a basement with a total of 5000 square meters.

Green Palace Museum

Shahvand Palace, now called Green Palace, is one of the most beautiful palaces in Iran. It is the first palace built in the complex during Pahlavi dynasty by Reza Shah’s order. This palace is located in a higher ground in the northwest of Saadabad Palace. Previously, this building belonged to someone called “AliKhan,” who was one of the great landowners and sold this building to Reza Shah.

During 1923-1929 Reza Shah renovated this building by an architect named “Mirza Jafar Memar Bashi”. The exterior is covered by rare beaded greenery from the province of Zanjan and was therefore called the Green Palace. This palace is a two-storey building with an area of 1203 square meters. The most interesting part of this palace is the mirror hall with a large-format carpet of seventy square meters that the carpet weaver of “Mathad” was called “Amoghli”.

Other Museums in Saadabad Palace :

Today, there are 10 museums in Saadabad Palace open to the public some are as follow:

  1. Nation palace
  2. Green Palace
  3. Fine arts museum: The major part of the paintings in this collection are the oil paintings of Safavid, Afshar, Zand and Qajar periods collected by Mohammad Reza Pahlavi’s last wife, Farah, from an English collectionner called Harold Emmer. The paintings have been arranged on 3 floors: 1) First floor, teahouse painting by contemporary Iranian artists, 2) second floor, various historical periods paintings mentioned above, and 3) Third floor, European works presented to Farah or bought by her.
  4. Behzad museum: This museum is devoted to the miniatures painted by Hossein Behzad (1895-1968) who made a revolution in Iranian painting. Studying European art and being inspired by Kamal-ed-din Behzad and Reza Abbasy, he introduced a new style of miniature on paper, hard paper or fiberboard. This style is purely Iranian, but it has kept on with its contemporary paces and changes of art in universal art schools.
  5. Abkar museum: The miniatures in this museum are works of a 20th century artist called Klara Abkar who had her particular style in painting. Her source of inspiration was the rich Iranian literature and mysticism. Her works take the visitors to a world of spirituality and a poem-like or light-music-like harmony that give everyone’s eyes peace and tranquility.

  1. Mir Emad museum: The main subject of this museum is the most prominent post-Islam Iranian art namely calligraphy. On paper and parchment, there are plenty of various calligraphic styles of writing belonging to 10th to 19th centuries. Mir Emad, himself, the most well known 18th century’s calligrapher, has been introduced by his works. In some cases, some calligraphy-related arts like illumination, painting, etc are exhibited.
  2. Museum of anthropology: The lifestyle and customs of Iranians through the history are displayed from cultural perspective. In a vast area and of two floors, various objects are exhibited like tools for irrigation, agriculture, husbandry, fishing and hunting as well as agricultural documents, clothes, lighting tools and handicrafts.
  3. Water museum: This museum in an exhibition of ancient and traditional techniques and instruments for water supplement and distribution. Various water-related vernacular structures are introduced like water reservoirs and traditional ice houses. Some ancient water dams and royal orders concerning them are presented as well.
  4. Military museum: the objects of the museum are displayed on two floors. The military uniforms of Achaemenids up to the present time are exhibited. The weaponry on display consists of some unsophisticated ones used in the ancient times until the firearms period’s. Part of the history of Iraqi-imposed war against Iran (1980-1988) is also exposed to visitors.

Niavaran Palace Complex is located in the northern part of Tehran, a building that once belonged to the royal family of Qajar, in 9000 square meters area. It consists of several buildings and a museum. The Sahebqaraniyeh Palace from the time of Nasir al-Din Shah of Qajar dynasty is also inside this complex. The beauty of the place and it’s whole energy is mesmerizing; Specially approaching spring time, you could see and feel the growth of life in the environment.

History of Niavaran Palace

The complex traces its origin to a garden in the region of Niavaran, which was used as a summer residence by Fath-Ali Shah (1772-1834) of the Qajar Dynasty. A pavilion was built in the garden by the order of Naser ed Din Shah (1831-1896) of the same dynasty, which was initially referred to as Niavaran, and was later renamed Saheb Qaranie. The pavilion of Ahmad Shah Qajar(1898-1930) was built in the late Qajar period.

During the reign of the Pahlavi Dynasty, a new mansion named Niavaran was built for the imperial family of Mohammad Reza Shah (1919-1980). All of the peripheral buildings of the Saheb Qaranie, with the exception of the Ahmad Shahi Pavilion, were demolished, and the present-day structures were built to the north of the Saheb Qaranie. The Ahmad Shahi Pavilion was then used as an exhibition centre for presents from world leaders to the Iranian imperial monarchs.


Niavaran Palace Today

Presently, it is comprised of five museums (Niavaran Palace Museum, Ahmad Shahi Pavilion, Sahebqaraniyeh Palace, Jahan Nama museum and the private library), and other cultural, historical and natural attractions including the Blue Hall, Private Cinema, Jahan Nama Gallery, and Niavaran Garden.

Architecture of Niavaran Palace

The quadrilateral design of the Niavaran palace and its interior archeological designing is inspired by Iranian archaeology while making use of modern technology. Its decorations have also been inspired by the pre and post Islamic art. The gypsum work has been carried out by Master Abdollahi, the mirror work by Master Ali Asghar, the tile work of the outer part by master Ibrahim Kazempour and Ilia. The building floor is covered by black stone and has an aluminum sliding roof. The internal decoration and furniture of Niavaran palace have been designed and implemented by a French group. In the ground floor of this building there is a great hall in which all the rooms are situated, including a private cinema, dining room, guest room, waiting room and lateral halls as well as the Blue Hall.

In the half floor of this building, the office, conference room, Farah Diba’s secretary’s room, Leila’s bedroom and her retainer’s room. In the stairways there is a room where Mohammad-Reza’s military uniforms and official suits and his medals are kept. In the third floor, Pahlavi’s resting place and his children’s and their retainer’s rooms are situated. These places are all decorated with precious paintings, carpets and gifts received from different countries.

Different Parts in Niavaran Palace:

1. Sahebqaranieh Palace

This is the oldest palace in the compound built at the time of Naser al-Din Shah. He also constructed 40-50 buildings for his wives at the same compound. Later, Mozaffar al-DinShah, his son, stayed  there and made some changes to this building and demolished the harem buildings.

Under 2nd Pahlavy dynasty, this palace went through some more changes and the lower floor was redecorated as a floor for receiving guests and the second floor as Mohammad Reza Shah’s office.

2. Niavaran Private Palace

This palace, compered to Sahebqaranieh, looks modern although it started with an Iranian plan. It was originally planned to be a reception hall for royal family’s guests and VIPs, but during the construction the use of the building was changed to the residence of Mohammad Reza Shah and his family. It was used until the latest moments of Shah’s stay in Iran.

3. Ahmad Shahi Mansion

Originally, this building was constructed during the end of Qajar era to be the sleeping mansion of Ahmad Shah during summer time. Later, under Pahlavies, some annexations  and alterations occurred and it was refurbished as the residence and office or Reza Pahlavy, the crown prince.

4. Jahan Nama Museum

By word, the name of this museum implies the museum where the world is presented. Toward the end of Pahlavy dynasty in Iran, late 1970s, this building was to showcase historic objects or artistic works from all over the world. Some exclusive and unique pieces are on display at this museum on the western side of Sahebqaranieh palace.

Some of those items were presented to Pahlavy Royal family and some had been purchased by them. They include ancient items and contemporary ones from inside and outside Iran.

5. Museum of Royal Library

This building is located at the north east of the Niavaran Compound is a secluded and quiet spot close to the residence of Pahlavy family. The structure consists of two floors as well as a basement. It has been built to be used as a private library. Therefore, it is not supposed to have been following library standards.

There is a piano and some audio devices found at this museum indicating it has been used for playing some music as well. There are some arts and old books from Iranian authors and foreign ones altogether making 23,000 volumes of books.

6. Museum of Royal Clothes &  Fabrics

This building was intended to be used for receiving royal court’s guests. It was built at the northern part of Niavaran palace compound. As royal clothes and fabrics found in the museum were of artistic values, it was decided to allocate this building to a museum of these items.

7. Museum of Royal Family’s Vehicles

The building, which accommodates Pahlavy family’s vehicles and their children’s motorcycles, used to be the parking building for them. Today, after some redecoration and renovation, those vehicles as well as some vehicle models are on display for the visitors who would like to learn more about the lifestyle of Pahlavy family.

8. Inscriptions Garden

This permanent exhibition has been inaugurated to display the copies of 43 rock relieves of Medes, Parthians and Sassanians in various ancient scripts. The copies are on display inside a garden at the eastern side of Niavaran palace compound.


Saea Prak is one of the public Parks of Tehran that has about 12 hectares area and that is located in the Valiasr street (6 regions).The location of this park was tree Planting in 1342 by an engineer Mr. Karim Saea and then it was given to the ministry of the agriculture. Eventually, the idea of designing the park came in the 40s and this park was made with the design of Mr. Hossein Mahjoubi in 1342. Complete the design and construction of the park were from 1342-1352.

History of Saei Park

In 1329 and by the efforts of Mr. Karim Saea, Saea Park was founded in the forest shape. After dyeing of Mr. Saea because of the plane crash this park kept the past shape and its dependency to the Ministry of Agriculture. After the development of Tehran city in 1334, this park was handed over Tehran municipality. Then the parks organization made this park with its equipment as a public park.


The development of Saea park is 120,082 square meters and it has Six inputs. Seeking a development and equipping the park, structures such as Gutter, Ditch, Pond, Waterfall and child’s playground and the part of the park is known as Japanese garden that the Aquatic birds are also keeping there. At the Wildlife part of the Park, the other animals are keeping. Some of these animals are as follow:

Rabbits, Rams, Geese, Swans, Ducks, Squirrels, wild Parrots, and Peacocks.

Vegetation cover of the park is also very diverse and we can through them count some of such as Planetree, Tehran Pine, Shirazi Cypress, Silver Cupressus,

Badbezani Cypress, Tabari Cypress, Laurel, Maple, Elm, Wes Cedar, Magnolia,

Tiger lily, Zhnygv, Hawthorn, Walnuts, and apples.

They made this park in the way that it has difference level and it has no stairs inside the park. The uses stone in this park comes from The Jajroud.

This park that until before regulation called Farah Park is one of the biggest parks of whole Tehran. This park established based on Farah request from the King. Before that this place was Military zone and used for equestrian and Parade and it was called Jalalieh garden. The area of the park is about 35 hectares. In one park different kinds of plants are available such as Sycamore, Acacia, and Pine.

Tehran Laleh park lands were for the Military from the past. This land is famous for the Jalalieh hours riding and it was used for the parade. Army was transferred land instead of claims the ministry of Finance to that ministry. The ministry of the prosperity of housing of time had the mission of that for making the design for this region. The Northern part of the park consider for the Public cultural facilities and the Southern part of the park consider to be only as the Park. The design of this is from the famous French designer Mr. “Zhufeh” and the other collogues of this fields and Iranian designers. Other operations were the municipality responsibility.

Municipality were based on the design continued the job till Farah park established in 1345. After that, in February of 1357, the name of the Park changed to Laleh park.

The first buildings of children’s library in Iran were made in a part of park land of Farah by the Institute for the Intellectual Development of Children and Young Adults.


Geographical location

This park is located within the scope of the 6th municipality of Tehran and in the neighborhood of Amirabad. The park is limited from the North to the Fatemi street, South Keshavarz Blvd., from West to North Kargar Avenue (Amirabad Street), and from the East to the veil street. In the neighborhood of  this park  Laleh Shopping Center, Contemporary Art Museum , Carpet Museum of  Iran and hotel Tulip are located.

Facilities and spaces

The southeastern part of the park is designed like a Japanese garden and it has the fountain and spiral rivulets. In the North streets of the park, you can see landscaping chess tables. Sports fields of  Park contains:

Basketball and volleyball courts in the North part of the park. There are  Center for Puppet Theatre , a library under the Institute for the Intellectual Development of Children and Young Adults and a mosquito in this park .

There are the variety of  sculptures and statues in the park that the celebrated of  them are  for Khayyam and  Biruni.

Khayyam statue is the work of  Hasan Siddiqui that is made in Italia in 1351 to the order of the National Monuments Council . After moved this sculpture to Iran it was transported to Laleh park and it is now in the mood that everyone can see it. After that, it was renovated many times by Fereidun Sediqi.

Taleqani park or Abbas Abad forest park with the Ex Names History of Jahane Kudak park and Davudieh hills is one of the parks in the Tehran that is located in the third region near the  martyr Haqqani metro station on top of the Abbas Abad hills. As this park is located in the height so it has the Overlooking perspective to Whole Tehran. The South of this park has the design of  Spiral shape and it is covered with the Italian oak trees.

Pol-e Tabiat ( Nature Bridge) is one three-storey bridge sidewalk and non-automotive that is located in Abbas Abad. It is also one of the symbols of  Tehran and passes from the width  of  Modares highway and connecting Taleqani park  in East to the Fire and Water park in West. The designer and architect of this park is by Leila Araqian.The study work of  Pol-e Tabiat (Nature bridge) begins in 1388. Pol-e Tabiat  built under reconstruction of Abbas Abad company. This bridge opened in 20th of  Mehr in 1393.

Design of Pol-e Tabiat

In the 1388 one call placed in the medias that were from the Abbas Abad company and the design of this bridge, operate in the form of the match and the operation began at the end of the second six months of 1389. Before the design of this bridge start , the engineers of this company had some kinds of research about this bridge. The experts of this company had initial research conducted on the characteristics of the bridge. The first priority of focusing was on environmental issues in the design of the bridge. Because the bridge is located at the point where all the arteries of the capital nature such as Modarres, ambition, Haqqani and mission from the top of the bridge can be seen in the good view .

Leila Iraqian participated in 1387 in Pol-e Tabiat Design Competition. In 1388 her plan was selected. Pol-e Tabiat was opened in 1393.

The long of this bridge is 300 meter and the weight of the structure of it is 2000 tons. Pol-e Tabiat is the largest non-automotive bridge of  Iran. The bridge is 7,000 square meters and width of it is in the different parts are variable from 6 to 13 meters. The main body of the bridge has been built on a tripod. 14000 pieces of steel in a different dimension, in cutting height of 40 meters above the ground burst and installed   to build it. To build this bridge more than 102 km of welding and 6200 cubic meters of concrete placement is done. The architectural design of the bridge is like Iranian Bridges was inspired by Khajoo  bridge  and it is a tree-like structure with organic design and fully compatible with the environment and nature.

The similar examples of  this bridge can find in national and natural parks of  France, Canada, Netherlands, Belgium, Malaysia and Australia. Tree form of columns and choose the name of  “Tabiat” (nature) for the bridge, both are to emphasize the continuity of green space (in nature) by the bridge. The bridge due to the cutting process, assembly parts, installation, and welding near utilization of space structures in the height of 40 meters is unique in Iran.

To build this bridge use from the special materials and tubes ,and the highest standards and safety factor intended for the bridge and based on the promise of  the chief contractor of the design of the bridge Pol-e Tabiat (Nature bridge) of the time of operation will be for 100 years old and even resistant on the face of earthquakes above 7 on the Richter scale accidents and natural disasters.

Pol-e Tabiat over 3 floors, 1450 first floor, 2870  second floor and 571 square meters is the third floor. They will also be intended  to make the third storey attractive as a tourist destination by made a variety of exhibition spaces , coffee shops , Gallery and  diverse restaurants. The constructor of the bridge pays attention to prediction pause on the bridge and appropriate urban furniture design, consistent with the characteristics of the instrument of the bridge .

The Managing Producer of the bridge said that this bridge is the new symbol of Tehran.


During the bridge, some spaces with cultural practices, recreation, and tourism parts were providing that from all of them we can note to the coffee shop, restaurant, cafe and gallery spaces that provides beautiful scenery in the curvature of the body.


Pol-e Tabiat is parts of a project of  build seven pedestrians in the Abbas abad lands.

This bridge contains Silk bridges and it is not too distant future,and it can be cited as a highlight of Tehran.


This bridge made a situation for the architecture  Leila Araqian to be known  , at the international level. Nature bridge is the first choice of people and in 5 Choose of  top 300 leading  architects in urban architecture competition (architizer awards A + ) in 2015. Pol-e Tabiat was recognized as the top Iran’s steel structure in 1392. The International golden brick prize gave to Pol-e Tabiat (Nature Bridge) in 1393.