The 1500-year-old wall of Gorgan is the second largest wall in the world after China. When the construction of the Great Wall of China was completed, it was 1000 years since the construction of the brick wall of Gorgan. Most of this wall has been destroyed and only small parts of it are buried under the ground. An American archaeologist who photographed Iranian antiquities with his private plane in 1315, sees a red wall in Gorgan and photographs it. These photographs later became documents for archaeologists’ research. Tens of millions of brick molds were used in the construction of this huge wall, and they found a large number of brick kilns at close distances to the wall. To provide water, they dug an aqueduct and built a 200-kilometer-long water canal. The construction of this wall took ninety years. The wall of Gorgan, in comparison with the series of walls of China, is a monument that was built with honor, and many innocent people and slaves were not killed in it!
“Death” is perhaps the strangest title for travel. “Dark Tourism” is a type of tourism in which tourists go to visit cities and areas that have been affected. The word “black” refers to a dark chapter in history, areas where natural disasters such as earthquakes, floods, tsunamis, wars, killings, countless deaths or massacres have occurred; And finally, places that arouse the fear and excitement of tourists. For example, a trip to visit the Hiroshima Museum in Japan, the city that fell victim to the US atomic bombs, or a trip to Chernobyl, Ukraine, where the largest nuclear disaster in history occurred and nearly 5 million people were injured and about 5,000 centers Residents in Belarus, Ukraine and Russia became infected with radioactive particles.
In Iran, visits to Ardabil cannibal castle, Nowshahr ghost lagoon, Jan Chabahar cemetery, Qasr prison museum in Tehran and Darvishkhan stone garden are classified in the black tourism group.
Zoroastrian Fire Temple in Yazd, the most important Zoroastrian fire temple in the world
? It was built about 80 years ago. When the Zoroastrians decided to build a fire temple for themselves, a Zoroastrian Indian joined them to build this fire temple. In India, Zoroastrians are known as “Parseh”, they are the same Zoroastrians who immigrated to India 300 years ago. At the top of the building is the symbol of “Forouhar”, which for Zoroastrians is the cross of Christians. The symbol of Forouhar is the image of an old man, which shows the value that Zarathustra attaches to the elderly. It is said that the fire that burns in the fire temple of Yazd has not been extinguished for about 1600 years. The worshipers are only allowed to enter the room of the fire headquarters. The fire burns inside a large bronze chamber. This fire was brought from Aqada Karian Larestan fire temple to Aqda in Yazd and was lit there for about 700 years, then from Aqda to Ardakan and finally to Yazd. He was first transferred to the house of one of the priests and later to the current location of the Zoroastrian fire temple in Yazd.
The crisis of the Corona virus has hit the world tourism industry in an unprecedented way, but the hope of nations for the future and the post-Corona era has made many countries prepare for the prosperity of the tourism industry. According to the American Forbes magazine, seven countries have the potential to become new tourism hubs in the world after the end of the Corona crisis, and our country, Iran, is one of them. Different historians have a special interest and passion for Iran in any field. There will be many tourist attractions available whenever you travel to Iran during the year, tourists can go skiing to Disney or hiking in the heart of the central deserts of Iran at the same time. The other six countries are Ethiopia, Myanmar, Georgia, the Philippines, Slovenia and Tunisia. Pristine and beautiful nature, many ancient and historical buildings, fascinating customs and authentic culture are things that can help to make these lesser-seen tourist destinations more global. Be sure to visit 140 km from Yazd city.
“Cypress Abarkooh”, the second oldest tree in the world in Abarkooh city of Yazd province, is a symbol of ancient Iran. Scientists have estimated the lifespan of the cypress tree to be between 4,000 and 8,000 years. The height of the tree is about 28 meters and the circumference of its trunk is about 18 meters. Fortunately, the Abarkooh cypress is still green and hardy. This cypress is a symbol of Ahuramazda (Zoroastrian god) in ancient Iran. In fact, it is said that the tree was first planted by him. There is another legend that believes that the cypress tree has a soul and this spirit Protects it. These days, the Yazd Cultural Heritage and Tourism Organization is in charge of protecting the Abarkooh cypress. In fact, the protective fence around it is one of the tasks of the organization to emphasize the importance of this natural place. The cypress tree of this giant tree, registered by the Cultural Heritage Organization of Iran, is waiting for UNESCO approval for world registration.
When traveling to Yazd, be sure to visit the Abarkooh tree located 140 km from Yazd.
4811 meter peak of Sabalan in Meshginshahr, Ardabil, the third highest peak in Iran after Damavand and Alam Kooh, is a semi-active volcanic mountain. Some people consider Mount Sabalan as the place of Zoroastrian mission and some believe that the tomb of Zoroaster is located next to Lake Sabalan and under one of its boulders. Therefore, the natives consider it a sacred place and even swear by its name. All the peaks of Sabalan It is covered with snow and ice all year round. Summer is the best season to climb the peak of Sabalan and visit the lake. This lake is an elliptical volcanic lake with an approximate depth of 15 meters. The water of the lake is supplied by rain and melting snow of the peak. If you have experience climbing at altitudes above 4,000 meters, do not miss to see this unique lake.
- rich article, About Iran
- Armenian, Jolfa, Saint Mary's Church, Saint Stepanous, Tabriz, Vank Cathedral, Church, Esfahan, Isfahan, Shiraz
The majority of churches in Iran that possess historical and artistic value were built around the eight century A.H. or the 14th century AD, and the period thereafter. Of course, this does not mean that there were no churches existing in the country before that period.
During the reign of Shah Abbas, the Safavid king, his sagacious policies caused a sizable number of Armenians from Armenia and Azarbaijan to transfer and settle in Esfahan and other regions of Iran. A place called Jolfa was built on the banks of the Zayande-rud River in Esfahan and became the residence of these migrating people. Consequently, churches were erected in that town. Meanwhile, after a short lapse of time, some Armenians moved to Gilan and some resided in Shiraz.
After the death of Shah Abbas the First, his successor, Shah Abbas the Second, also paid close attention to the welfare of Armenians and more churches were erected in Jolfa. The influx of many Europeans during the reign of the Qajars led to the flourishing of other churches, in addition to those that were constructed previously. A number of these edifices have lasted and acquired architectural and artistic significance.
Azarbaijan is host to the oldest churches in Iran. Among the most significant are the Tatavous Vank (St. Tatavous Cathedral), which is also called the Ghara Kelissa (the black monastery). This is located at the Siahcheshmeh (Ghara-Eini) border area south of Makou. There is also the church known as Saint Stepanous, which stands 24 kilometers south of Azarbaijan’s Jolfa town.
Generally, each church has a large hall for congregational prayers; its foremost part is raised like a dais, adorned with the pictures or images of religious figures and it also serves as an altar. Here, candles are lit and the church mass is conducted by the priest. In the foreground is the praying congregation which faces the platform where the priest is leading the rites in the church; this is similar to the Muslim practice of praying facing the niche in the mosque. While the mass is being said, the people stand, kneel, or sit depending on what the rites require. The structure of churches in Iran follows more or less the pattern of Iranian architecture, or they are a mixture of Iranian and non-Iranian designs.
Churches in Iran
This is one of the old churches in Iran located at an intersection west of the Marand-Jolfa highway and east of the Khoy-Jolfa road. Also having a pyramidal dome, it is, nevertheless, quite beautiful and far more pleasant to behold than the Saint Tatavous church.
The general structure mostly resembles Armenian and Georgian architecture and the inside of the building is adorned with beautiful paintings by Honatanian, a renowned Armenian artist. Hayk Ajimian, an Armenian scholar and historian, recorded that the church was originally built in the ninth century AD, but repeated earthquakes in Azarbaijan completely eroded the previous structure. The church was rebuilt during the rule of Shah Abbas the Second.
Saint Mary’s Church in Tabriz
This church was built in the sixth century A.H. (12th century AD) and in his travel chronicles, Marco Polo, the famous Venetian traveler who lived during the eight century A.H. (14th century AD), referred to this church on his way to China. For so many years, Saint Mary’s served as the seat of the Azarbaijan Armenian Archbishop. It is a handsomely built edifice, with different annex buildings sprawled on a large area. A board of Armenian peers is governing the well- attended church.
Aside from the above three churches, there are others in Azarbaijan such as the old church built in the eight century A.H. at Modjanbar village, which is some 50 kilometers from Tabriz. Another one is the large Saint Sarkis church, situated in Khoy; this building has survived from the time of Shah Abbas the Second (12th century A.H.). During the reign of the said Safavid king, another edifice called the Saint Gevorg (Saint George) church was constructed, using marble stones and designed with a large dome, at Haft Van village near Shapur (Salmas). A church, also with a huge dome, likewise stands at Derishk village in the vicinity of Shapur, in Azarbaijan.
The Saint Tatavous Monastery or the Ghara Kelissa
Initially, this church in Iran comprised of a small hall with a pyramid- shaped dome on the top and 12 crevices similar to the Islamic dome-shaped buildings from the Mongol era. The difference was that the church dome was made of stone. The main part of this pyramid structure followed Byzantine (Eastern Roman) architecture, including the horizontal and parallel fringes made of white and black stones in the interior and black stones on the exterior facing.
Since the facade is dominated by black stones, the church was formerly called the Ghara Kelissa (or black monastery) by the natives. During the reign of the Qajar ruler, Fathalishah, new structures were added to the Saint Tatavous church upon the order of Abbas Mirza, the crown prince, and the governor of Azarbaijan. The renovations resulted in the enlargement of the prayer hall and the small old church was converted into a prayer platform, holding the altar, the holy ornaments and a place where the priest could lead the prayers.
The bell tower and the church entrance were situated at one side of the new building, but unfortunately, this part remained unfinished.
Meanwhile, due to border skirmishes and other political disturbances in the area during the succeeding periods, the church was abandoned and ruined. Some minor repairs have been carried out in recent years.
Each year, during a special season (in the summer), many Armenians from all parts of Iran travel to this site for prayer and pilgrimage. They come by jeeps or trucks after crossing a very rough mountainous passage.
They flock around the church, stay for a few days and perform their religions ceremonies. For the rest of the year, however, the church remains deserted in that remote area.
The additions made to the Saint Tatavous church on the order of Abbas Mirza consist of embossed images of the apostles on the facade and decorations of flowers, bushes, lion and sun figures and arabesques, all of which had been done by Iranian craftsmen. The architecture of the church interior is a combination of Byzantine, Armenian and Georgian designs. Beside the large church, special chambers have been built in the yard to shelter pilgrims and hermits.
Historical Churches at Jolfa of Esfahan
The most important historical church in Iran is the old cathedral, commonly referred to as the Vank (which means “cathedral” in the Armenian language). This large building was constructed during the reign of Shah Abbas the First and completely reflects Iranian architecture. It has a double-layer brick dome that is very much similar to those built by the Safavids. The interior of the church is decorated with glorious and beautiful paintings and miniature works that represent biblical traditions and the image of angels and apostles, all of which have been executed in a mixture of Iranian and Italian styles. The ceiling and walls are coated with tiles from the Safavid epoch.
At a corner of the large courtyard of the cathedral, offices and halls have been built to accommodate guests, the Esfahan archbishop and his retinue, as well as other important Armenian religious hierarchy in Iran. The church compound also includes a museum that is located in a separate building. The museum displays preserved historical records and relics, and the edicts of Iranian kings dating back to the time of Shah Abbas the First. It also contains an interesting collection of art work.
Esfahan has other historical churches, the most important of which is the Church of Beit-ol Lahm (Bethlehem) at Nazar Avenue. There are also the Saint Mary church at Jolfa Square and the Yerevan church in the Yerevan area.
The Armenian Church in Shiraz
In the eastern section of Ghaani Avenue, in a district called “Sare Jouye Aramaneh”, an interesting building has survived from the era of Shah Abbas the Second. Its principal structure stands in the midst of a gardenlike compound and consists of a prayer hall with a lofty flat ceiling and several cells flanking the two side of the building. The ceiling is decorated with original paintings from the Safavid era and the adjoining cells are adorned with niches and arches and plaster molding, also in the Safavid style. This is considered a historical monument at Shiraz and definitely worth a visit.
Saint Simon’s Church in Shiraz
This is another relatively important, but not so old church in Shiraz. The large hall is completely done in Iranian style while the roof is Roman. Small barrel-shaped vaults, many Iranian art work and stained-glass window panes adorn the church. Meanwhile, another church called the Glory of Christ, stands at Ghalat, 34 kilometers from Shiraz. This building has survived from the Qajar period and is surrounded by charming gardens.
Saint Tatavous Church, Tehran
This edifice is located at the Chaleh Meidan district, one of the oldest districts in Tehran. It stands south of the Seyed Esmail Mausoleum, at the beginning of the northern part of the so-called Armenians’ Street. The oldest church of Tehran, it was built during the reign of the Qajar king, Fathalishah. The building has a dome-shaped roof and four alcoves, an altar and a special chair reserved for the Armenian religions leader or prelate. The vestibule leading to the church contains the graves of prominent non-Iranian Christians who have died in Iran, and in the middle of the churchyard, Gribaydof, the Czarist ambassador at the court of Fathalishah, and his companions were laid to rest. They were killed by the revolutionary forces of Tehran at that time.
Meanwhile in Bushehr, there is a church from the Qajar period that is a good specimen of Iranian architecture. All the windows are modeled after old Iranian buildings and the colored panes are purely Iranian art work.
There are also many other churches in Iran such as Ourumieh, in hamlets surrounding Arasbaran, Ardabil, Maragheh, Naqadeh, Qazvin, Hameadan, Khuzestan, Chaharmahal, Arak, in the old Vanak village north of Tehran, etc. These churches, though, are all deserted and are of little artistic significance.
For centuries, Mesopotamia was thought to be the world’s oldest civilization. This was generally accepted by most people until a 5,000-year old temple was discovered in Jiroft Historical Site in Iran’s southern Kerman province, prompting archaeologists to identify the region as the world’s oldest cradle of human civilization.
A hundred and twenty historical sites have been identified in the basin of a 400 kilometer stretch of Halil-Rud River in the south of Kerman province. One of these is at Konar Sandal (sites A & B),
two mounds a short drive from Jiroft town-center. Jiroft is 230-kilometres south of the city of Kerman and was previously known as Sabzevaran, a name that describes the verdant fertile valley plain of the Halil River. Indeed, the plain by Iranian standards is so green and fertile that it is called ‘Hend-e Kuchak’ meaning little India. Jiroft is also one of the hottest towns in Iran. A temperature of 57 °C / 135 °F was recorded in August 1933.
Not far from Konar Sandal, flash floods from the Halil River in the year 2000 swept away the topsoil revealing yet another site, this one consisting of a large number of ancient graves. The excavations at Konar Sandal site have also revealed the ruins of a city a kilometer and a half (about a mile) in diameter.
Konar Sandal Site & Mounds Near Jiroft
The ruins of the ancient settlements at or near Jiroft are said to have been home to a people who inhabited the area in 2200 or 2300 BCE – an era in history when writing first began to flourish and traders carried spices and grain, gold, lapis lazuli and ideas along the Aryan trade roads that radiated from Central Asia to the Nile, Indus and China.
The mounds or tepes at Jiroft are also called “Qal’eh Kuchak” meaning little head. In addition, there are the two mounds, site A that is said to be a ziggurat-like structure 17 meters (54′) high and 400 meters (1280′) on each side at the base, and site B that is said to be a two-story citadel with a base covering nearly 13.5 hectares (33 acres) surrounded by a fortress wall 10.5 meters (34′) thick. A ziggurat suggests a pyramid-like structure consisting of tiered platforms, and a citadel suggest a fortified building. The two sites A & B are a couple of kilometers apart
French geomorphologist Éric Fouache, an expert on reading the strata underlying the archaeological sites, has discovered a network of artesian wells that would have supplied abundant water for irrigation and drinking even when the Halil River ran dry. With these sources of water, the inhabitants developed an agriculture based on date palms and Palm groves provided shade for further planting.
Chris Sloan at the National Geographic blog site writes, “And at the “citadel,” Konar Sandal B, archaeologists have uncovered a life size, or larger, human figure sculpted from mud or mud brick.
It had been painted to look like it was wearing a feline pelt. If this sculpture is associated with Bronze Age layers, it will be among the earliest of such figures in the world. Unfortunately, it is missing its head. The earliest known statue of this sort from Egypt, and I believe the world, is from Hierakonpolis. It dates from 3000 B.C, It is also incomplete, but in much worse shape and It is in over 500 pieces.”
The artefacts found include twenty-five two to five centimeter (7/8″–2″) long stamp and cylinder seal impressions that depict bulls, ibex, lions, snakes, human figures – and writing. It should be noted that some of the finds related to ‘writing’ are thought by other archaeologists to be forgeries.
Other finds are a large number (tens of thousands) of carved and decorated vases, cups, goblets and boxes made from a soft, fine-grained, durable gray-greenish stone called chlorite
Looting of Treasures & History Lost Forever
After the floods in 2000 revealed the site and its artefacts, local farmers looted what they could find and sold them to unscrupulous dealers for a pittance.
The looters work by digging indiscriminate holes or digging up graves which are rich in buried artefacts. It is estimated that there are 10,000 holes dug by the looters – craters that scare the landscape.
It was only in the fall of 2002, that the Iranian government stepped in to halt the looting and seized hundreds of stolen artefacts. However, despite the crackdown on pillaging and the hiring of a dozen armed guards, sadly, theft at Jiroft still continues and local rumors abound about the looting of gold and other priceless items.Even when stolen artefacts are recovered, many will have been damaged irreparably by the careless removing of caked on soil. Their contextual identity will also it all probability have been lost. Because the artefacts were removed from their setting and the attached material that could have been dated by scientific instruments removed, the history or information these treasures have may have carried with them will, sadly, be lost forever.
The large number of chlorite artefacts discovered lends itself to the theory that Jiroft had several prolific chlorite workshops that manufactured the items in quantities that exceeded local demand and were prepared for export. Indeed, chlorite vessels similar to those found at Jiroft have been found from the Euphrates to the Indus, as far north as the Amu Darya and as far south as Tarut Island, on the Gulf coast of Saudi Arabia. While there is nothing at present to directly link the Jiroft artefacts with the others, there is certainly the possibility of a link. Perhaps the link can be explored and established by finding common styles. The Jiroft artisans had a unique naturalistic design style.
Chlorite is a stone similar to steatite and soapstone. It is durable but soft enough to carve easily, and fine-grained enough to hold carved details well. Its color ranges from jade green (which gives it its name) to smoky gray, to black as obsidian. While there are chlorite deposits in mountains across Iran, only one ancient chlorite quarry has been found in Tepe Yahya some 90 kilometers (50 miles) from Jiroft. The other old chlorite quarry that has been discovered in the region, is on Tarut Island – an island located across the Persian Gulf along the Arabian coast (near present-day Bahrain and some 800 kilometers east-south-east of Jiroft).
Trade Links Along The Aryan Trade Roads
The trade links between Jiroft and all the centers along the Aryan trade roads is further indicated by the discovery of objects inlaid with lapis lazuli (likely from Afghanistan), carnelian (possibly from the Indus Valley), and other semiprecious stones not local to the area. Marjan Mashkur, an Iranian researcher based in Paris, discovered at Jiroft shark bones and shells that appear to have been brought inland from the Gulf which is some 200 kilometers (120 miles) of the south of Jiroft.
In addition to items made from chlorite, the Jiroft artisans also made pink and orange alabaster jars, white marble vases, copper figurines, beakers and a striking copper basin with a eagle seated in its center, as well as realistic carved stone impressions of heraldic eagles, scorpions and scorpion-women.
Persian Gulf or Pars Sea, which runs along the Oman Sea and between Iran and the Arabian Peninsula. Its area is 233,000 square kilometers, and after the Gulf of Mexico and the Hudson Bay, the third largest gulf in the world. The Persian Gulf travels east from Hormuz Strait and the Oman Sea to the Indian Ocean and the Arabian Sea and ends from the west to the Delta of the Arvandrood River, which is the result of the interconnection of the two rivers of the Tigris and Euphrates, and the adjoining Karun River, the Persian Gulf The ancient Iran and Arab countries of Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, Oman and Iraq have a common blue border. Since, on the one hand, Iran has the most common water border in the Persian Gulf and, on the other hand, has played a major role in the formation of the ancient civilization of this region. Also, during the history of the control and dominance of the Persian Gulf has been to Iranians. It is considered as the main heritage of this region on Iran, and its most characteristic feature is the name of this water zone, which has been registered in the name of Iranians during the last three thousand years.
History of Persian Gulf
The Assyrians, before reaching Iranian plateau, called the Persian Gulf “narmarratu”, meaning “bitter river,” and apparently this is the oldest name remaining from it. After the victory of the Persian Empire on its neighboring states and the formation of the Achaemenid Empire, the river was called Pars Sea. From Darius I to the inscription found next to the Suez Canal, dating back to 500 BC. The term “drya tyahache parsa” refers to the sea, which is referred to as the Pars Sea, which refers to the Persian Gulf.
The Greeks were the first people to call this sea called “Pers” and to the land of Iran “Parsei”, “Persia” and Persepolis, means the country of Parsian (Chaste People). And most of the Greek and Roman historians of that time have mentioned this sea called the Persian Gulf.
In the twentieth century, with the development of geographical information, along with the printing of maps in many different languages, the combination of the Persian Gulf has become universally applicable, from this point of view, the twentieth century can be considered a century of using the composition of the Persian Gulf. This waterway is in Persian language “Khaleej Fars”, in Arabic “Al-Khaleej al-Farsi”, in French “GolF persique”, in Turkish “Farhor Farzi”, and the same way, with a slight change in the priority of combining components, in all the languages of the world. has it.
Islands of Persian Gulf
The Persian Gulf is home to many small islands. Bahrain, an island in the Persian Gulf, is itself a Arab state. Geographically the biggest island in the Persian Gulf is Qeshm island located in the Strait of Hormuz and belonging to Iran. Other significant islands include Greater Tunb, Lesser Tunb and Kish administered by Iran, Bubiyan administered by Kuwait, Tarout administered by Saudi Arabia, and Dalma administered by UAE. In recent years, there has also been addition of artificial islands, often created by Arab states such as UAE for commercial reasons or as tourist resorts. Although very small, these artificial islands have had a negative impact on the mangrove habitats upon which they are built, often causing unpredictable environmental issues. Persian Gulf islands are often also historically significant, having been used in the past by colonial powers such as the Portuguese and the British in their trade or as acquisitions for their empires.
Cities & Population
Eight nations have coasts along the Persian Gulf: Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates. The gulf’s strategic location has made it an ideal place for human development over time. Today, many major cities of the Middle East are located in this region.
National day of Persian Gulf
The Islamic Republic of Iran designated April 30th as the “National Day of Persian Gulf” and has also issued a series of stamps commemorating.
Taq-e Bostan ( in Kermanshahi Kurdish “ Taq Ve Saan” with the meaning of the Arched made by stone) is a collection of petroglyphs and Sassanid inscriptions that are located in the west of Iran and northwestern of Kermanshah city. This complex was built in the third century AD and has many historical and artistic values. Some Historic scenes, such as Khosrow Parviz Coronation, Artaxerxes II’s coronation, the second and third Shahpur coronations, and also some inscriptions by the line of the Pahlavi inscription are carving inside it. The existence of mountain and the fountain inside this place made there as a cheerful walkway that has been considered since the long times ago until today.
History of Taq-e Bostan
Taq-e Bostan in the Kermanshahi Language (Kurdish) is “ Taq Ve Saan”. “Taq” is with the meaning of “vault”, “Ve” is “from” and “Saan” is the stone. And in this way, “Taq Ve Saan” means the “Stony Vault ”. This complex was built in the third century AD. Sassanid kings first chose the area around Persepolis to shave their sculptures, but from the time of Artaxerxes II, and the kings after him, they chose Taq-e Bostan either that was located between the way of Silk Road with the Green and full of water nature.
Art paints and music in Taq-e Bostan
Taq-e Bostan royal hunting ground Petroglyph is the first stone panel with the accordance with the rules and principles of painting that counts in the world. In this carvings, Khosrow ride on Shabdez is on the way that you think the effect has come from the other paint. Also in the large vault, there are some effects from the women musician whom they are busy on playing the harp and wind instruments. In the other part of the large vault, the Boar hunting scenes have to be seen that it is from the movement and the show is among the masterpieces of the art of petrography that is in the way of Art near the art of painting on the wall.
Used Clothes & Footwear in Taq-e Bostan
With the analytical study in the reliefs of the Taq-e Bostan, the colorful dress of the ride has been woven with golden threads and they have rhombic style and the decorated is perfectly geometrical. In the Boar hunting scene, the king has a clothing on his body that has decorated with the role of the Simorq in the circular signs. The clothes of Rowers have also dramatic roles. In a prominent role in the lateral wall of Taq-e Bostan, ceremonial Ornaments of the king robes, who sits on the throne inside the central of Shamma carving in the glaze form of crystalline and with the variety of the gold Embroidered and Embroidered flowers near each other, has great decoration and the clothes of followers and elephant rides has Hand sewing with plants and birds paintings.
Sections of Taq-e Bostan
This relief is the first reliefs of the Taq-e Bostan that is located near the small vault. There is a Petroglyph in the right hand of the small vault that shows the scene of the coronation of Artaxerxes II ninth Sassanid king. In this scene, the Sasanid king with the standing mood, three quadrant face and all ROC body painted in the central of the scene that the left hand is on the Hilt and with the right hand gave the Ribbon ring from the Ahuramazda, while Zoroaster or we can say Mitra with the Halo of light is located on the left hand behind him. Under the foot of Artaxerxes II, Roman emperor Julian whom he is captured in the war is located. Sassanid king has large eyes with the prominent eyebrows. He has the curly beard and he has in bulk hair that Hung on his shoulders. He has Earrings on his ears, a necklace on the neck and bracelet on the wrist. His Earrings are in the shape of the circular ring and small balls are hanging from them. Also, his Necklaces has a row of coarse pearl beads. Evidently Amesha Spenta was the interface among human and Ahuramazda , and Hooman (Bahaman) what we read in the excerpts Zatsperm : (( Hooman carried Zoroaster to the high beautiful sky that all of it was the bright, it was the Eternal Light and Topless, it was Ahuramazda as a pure light. )) So the picture behind the head of Artaxerxes II is Amesha Spenta and Hooman.
Great vault in Great vault
The most important effect in the Taq-e Bostan is the Great vault with the Petroglyph of Khosrow Parviz coronation that it has a porch with the rectangular space (seven meters and eighty-five centimeters width , eleven meter and ninety centimeters height , seven meter and sixty five centimeters depth) that is located near the entrance of the vault, Petroglyph of winged angels, life tree , Boar hunting events , hunting birds and fish in the marsh and the paints of elephants, horses, and boats that they are suggests feasting and happiness ceremony.
Under the paint of Khosrow Parviz coronation, armored riding on horseback is located.
In this picture, the king is among and Forouhar is located on the right hand of him. Forouhar has the jagged crown on his head and gives the Izadi far ring to the king. King garments (Shah garments) and image of Forouhar are partially identical. Both of them have corrugated pants on foot that they are sticking to their ankle by wrapping. Also, both of them have the belt and a bracelet. Mitra is located on the left hand of the king.
You can see three statues in the great vault. The king is among, Forouhar is on the right hand of him that is like the Artaxerxes II’s coronation and Anahita is on the left hand of the king. Anahita is the Goddess of water and symbol of Flourishing and greenery.
Small Vault in Taq-e Bostan
The small Vault is located in among of coronation petroglyph of Artaxerxes II and the great vault and it has rectangular space with width of five meters and eighty centimeters and the height of five meters and thirty centimeters with the pictures of coronation ceremonies of second and third Shahpur, This vault has two figure in the top wall of the vault and two Epigraphs. These Epigraphs are in the Line of inscription Pahlavi.
Injuries in Taq-e Bostan
Prominent figure of Mohammad Ali Mirza
Unfortunately, in the period of Qajar, some manipulation have been made on top of this very exquisite carvings panel and they have carving images and had Great damages to Taq-e Bostan . The picture of the one selfish king in the Qajar period that he wanted to have one memento from his self under this vault. This carving shows the status of the Mohamad Ali Dolatshah the son of Fath Ali the king of Qajar. This picture is very inappropriate and worthless.
There were the building related to the Qajar era in around of the Taq-e Bostan until 1342 that were known to the Masoudieh Mansion that was built by Imam Quli Mirza imadudole and was destroyed to indicate the artefacts and dumping Anahita fountains.
Because of the movement of the ground in this part cracks were appeared in the large and small vaults that over time, and with gathering moss on the walls of that they cause fade part of the designs in these vaults and because of gathering the water in the gaps this process has resonant and make the archaeologists think about repair of the mansion.