Alandan lake with the 17-hectare area that is at the time of raining come to have the 30-hectare area, is located in the Alandan village in the Chahardangeh part of Sari city.This natural effect with the quaternary dating and the number of 263, recorded in 14 of  November month of  2015 in the national index.

The water of this lake is only supplied through the precipitation and no river is flowing into it. In fact, the placement and type of soil of this lake are triggered that due to the little rain, all waters of precipitation (rain or snow) flows toward this lake. Also, the impermeability of soils this lake will increase the survival of water inside it.

Alendan lake (Persian: دریاچهٔ الندان) is a lake with 17 hectare span located in Sari County. This lake belongs to Quaternary era and has recorded in The national index of Iran in 2015.
Alendan lake (Persian: دریاچهٔ الندان) is a lake with 17 hectare span located in Sari County. This lake belongs to Quaternary era and has recorded in The national index of Iran in 2015.

The approximate distance of this lake from Sary is 70 km and it is in the way of the Sary-Semnan row that is at the height of 1300 meters above the sea level. Broadleaf forests are surrounding the lake that is in the spring the habitats of Violets and Elzi(Wild chives) and spices of fragrant and medicinal vegetables.

In the summer the river that is flowing on the other side of the lake provides fresh water to drink. In the Autumn Medlar and some, the other types of shrubs will have lots of products here.  In the winter here is the location for the wild ducks and in the recent years with the release of the fish in this lake the applications have risen. Some important industrial trees with the names of  Rush, Hornbeam, Oak, Mulch, Linden are around this lake that they have industrial and aesthetic value. The water of this water reservoirs is the main resource of water of around paddies.


Khazar Sea, saltwater lake in southeastern Europe and southwestern Asia, the largest inland body of water in the world. The Caspian Sea (Khazar Sea) is bordered on the west by Azerbaijan and Russia, on the northeast and east by Kazakhstan, on the east by Turkmenistan, and on the south by Iran.

People correctly associate seals and sea lions with marine environments. Almost all pinniped species are found in the oceans and along their coasts and island shores, but a few kinds of seals are residents of landlocked lakes. The Caspian Sea (Khazar Sea), which is the world’s largest salt lake, is home to the Caspian seal, Phoca caspica. How did it get here? Scientists believe the ancestor of the Caspian seal swam upriver from the North Atlantic Ocean to reach the Paratethys, a huge inland sea. Then, about 5 or 6 million years ago, the Paratethys began to dry up: Today’s Black, Caspian, and Aral seas are its remains, and the Caspian seal is a legacy of the time when a salt sea stretched from Europe to Central Asia.

Species and Habitats in Khazar Sea

The Caspian Sea (Khazar Sea) offers a variety of habitats in which well-adapted species thrive.

Principal habitats for fish species
For a fish to complete its life cycle it must move through 3 different habitats: spawning habitat, pasturing habitat and wintering habitat. For fish species with limited migration range these three habitats coincide. Semi-migrating fish species may find pasture habitats out at sea, but during the wintering and spawning seasons they move to rivers. Some marine fish carry out considerable migrations within the seawater area, while others may inhabit relatively limited areas of the sea.

Semi-migrating fish species:
These fish spawn in the deltas and downstream reaches of rivers and use the fresh water deltas as pasture habitats. The optimal levels of salinity for most of the commercial fish is approximately 8g/l. During years of high water levels, optimal saline waters cover all of the northern Caspian as well as coastal areas adjacent to the river mouths within the Middle Caspian zone.

Migrating fish species:
Sturgeon – the most valuable commercial fish – spawn in the rivers of the Caspian basin. These fish migrate upstream from the river basins for hundreds of kilometers. Sturgeons select areas with pebbly or hard sandy ground as spawning grounds. However, the construction of dams have been restricted fish monement to the lower reaches of the rivers prevent the sturgeon from migrating up the rivers to spawn and has led to a decrease in the natural reproduction.

Marine fish species:
Commercial marine fish of live throughout the Caspian Sea. Different geographical regions within the sea play specific roles: the shallow northern regions are important for reproduction as well as for development at early stages of life.

Principle habitats for bird species

The Caspian Sea (Khazar Sea) is situated on major migratory routes for many bird species and it is therefore of important value for the whole of Eurasia. The majority of migratory birds stem from the Siberian-Asian region. In the autumn the birds concentrate on the northeast and northern coasts of the Caspian. Gradually, they begin moving along the western coast towards the south. At this point different species may take different routes; some continue moving south along the western coast others migrate further west along the Caucasian mountain range. The birds originating from the central and northwestern districts of Russia migrate to the seacoast along the Volga. In the delta area of the Volga this stream of migrant birds merges with those from Asia. The Ural and Emba rivers are also important migratory paths. During spring, the migration routes move back in the opposite direction.

Principle habitats for mammals

The only sea mammal living in the Caspian Sea (Khazar Sea)  is the seal. In the winter the seals concentrate in the Northern Caspian, near edges of ice packs, where they carry out their whelping, and molting. A small proportion of seals remain on islands near the coast of Turkmenistan throughout the winter. In the summer the seals migrate to the Middle and Southern Caspian in order to fatten up. However, a few do remain in the Northern Caspian.

Sturgeon Worth Their Weight in Gold

Historically, 90% of the World’s caviar has come from the Caspian Sea (Khazar Sea) region and its tributary rivers. The supply, however, is shrinking rapidly. The effects of pollution, loss of spawning habitat, increased poaching and over-fishing has proven to be devastating to the sturgeon population and, consequently, caviar production.

After the arrival of Islam in Iran, there were many mosques throughout Iran and in different historical periods. One of these historical mosques which its architecture and glory is well-known for domestic and incoming tourists, is Vakil mosque built by Karim Khan Zand (1187 AH). The mosque is located next to Vakil Bazaar and the Vakil Bath, creating a massive complex.

History of Vakil Mosque

At the time of Karim Khan-e Zand (Vakil oroaya) (1187 AH), Shiraz was the capital of Zandieh government and it was Karim Khan’s attention. In this period, many monuments were built that Vakil Mosque except them.

Two narrations have been quoted from Karim Khan about construction of this mosque, which we define it further:

During the construction, architects emphasized the mimbar, altar, inscriptions and tiles because they represented the glory of the mosque, but Karim Khan who was one of the most popular kings in Iran history, emphasize on the people’s needs. So he encouraged the workers to build W.C the best possible .He said that “If God would like to bless me, it is because of this service and not the mosque because the people need it more.”

It is also quoted that Karim Khan emphasized to build the mosque as soon as possible, so he invited from musicians to play music in order to creation a happy atmosphere and the workers do their job better.

Pierre Loti has wrote in his travelogue “Today, fortunately, I succeeded to visit Karim Khan Mosque, if I stay here for a while; I will enter all the places that are completely prohibited for me now. The people of this city are very gentle and kind to me. The architecture design and pattern of the mosque is simple but there are Mina Kari (Enamel), green and red colors everywhere, and this glorious art exceed its limit. Cannot be found anywhere without Enamel. We are in a turquoise and Lajevardi (Persian blue) palace, now.”

Architecture of Vakil Mosque

The mosque’s plan is two-porch and has two Shabestan (a large columned hall in the mosque) in the direction of south and north. The different parts of the mosque include entrance, hallway, atrium, mimbar, Shabestan and porch have beautiful design, but the three arches of the mosque have another magnificent view and are seen more in the photos.

One of the features of Iranian architecture is Mardomvari (Humanism) in the opinion of Dr. Karim Pirnia, in the sense that the each part of the monument is proportionate to people and their needs. This feature is also observed in Vakil mosque. The size of Shabestan and the lack of minarets and ornament in order to create a spacious space for prayers are examples of this characteristic.


To visit the mosque, you will pass through an entrance that its ornamentation; tile and calligraphy are beautiful examples of Islamic architecture. There is also an inscription with some Qur’an’s verses. Two companions with a height of 8 and a width of 3 meters have given it a special glory. After passing through the short hallway, you will be directed to the atrium.


The mosque has two courtyards that the atrium has a dimension 65 x 60 and a smaller yard is 35 x 20. There are rectangular pools in both courtyards. The smaller yard is located in the northeast; you will arrive through pass a small hallway.

Arch and porch

In the northern porch, a high arch has a beautiful effect with two tiles finials. Other arch is named pearl; it is decorated with Haft-rang (Seven color) tiles and geometric and herbal pattern. There are inscriptions with Quran verses contents. In front of the pearl arch (Morvarid arch), there is another arch decorated with engraved stones and Haft-rang (Seven color) and Moraq tiles. On the west side there are 11 arches decorated with tiles and Quran verses. Symmetrically, there are the same arches on the eastern side. Behind these arches, a colonnade shows tile and beautiful paintings.

Shabestan, altar and mimbar

On the southern and eastern sides of the mosque, there are two shabestan that the southern Shabestan is considered as one of the beautiful ornaments of Iran mosques. What makes this part of the mosque attractive is the integrated pillars that have a mysterious simplicity. Forty-eight spiral columns in four rows and a height of 5 meters in addition to keeping the roof, has provided eye-catching beauty.

The mimbar of the mosque is made up of marble, and because of 14 imams in the Shia religion, its steps are 14. It is quoted that the stone has been brought from Maragheh and it was very expensive with the facilities of that time.

The altar is located on the right side of the mimbar which ornamented by calligraphy, Moqarnas, which done professional by architects.

History & Location of Sa’dabad Palace

Sa’dabad Palace is a cultural and historical complex built by the Qajar and Pahlavi dynasty of Iran in the Shemiran area of Tehran. The complex contains 18 palaces belonged to the royal families of Qajar and Pahlavi, in a unique and beautiful garden.The complex was first inhabited by Qajar monarchs and royal family in the 19th century. After an expansion of the compounds, Reza Shah lived there in the 1920s. And his son, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi moved there in the 1970s. Saadabad Palace lies from the north to the Alborz Mountains, from the east to Golabdare, from the west to Velenjak and from the south to Tajrish. Since 1979 revolution, this plant was transformed into the museum. Two palaces, namely, the (white) palace and the green palace, are open to the public, as palace museums and other buildings have been allocated to their specialty for various types of exhibitions.


The White Palace:

This is the main palace of the Saadabad Palace and the largest mansion in this collection. It is also called the palace museum of Melat, but due to it’s white color it is also known as the white palace. Right outside of the entrance you can see these pair of boots attached to the ground, as if they were a part of a bigger statue, there is many stories, but all of them confirm that these are in fact Reza Shah’s boots. Some say that this was a full statue and they ruined it during the revolution and others say that it was only the boots as a symbol of power and strength.

There is also another statue that catches one’s eye, it’s the “Archer Arash” statue, Arash is a mythological character that also represents Iran’s rich culture and literature. This statue is over 5 meters tall and located right in front of the main entrance.

This place used to be the Shah’s (Mohammad Reza shah) summer vacation spot. It was also used for formal events of the royal family. There are 54 rooms in this palace with about 10 different halls. The first king of Pahlavi, reza Shah ordered to build this palace in 1932, which was completed by 1937. But it was used effectively three years later. Many artists and engineers were involved in building this palace. Layout plan was designed by Mr.Khorsandi and construction drawings were developed by Leon Taavosian, Pesyan and Russian Boris. This palace is built in the area of ​​2164 square meters; It is a two-storey building and a basement with a total of 5000 square meters.

Green Palace Museum

Shahvand Palace, now called Green Palace, is one of the most beautiful palaces in Iran. It is the first palace built in the complex during Pahlavi dynasty by Reza Shah’s order. This palace is located in a higher ground in the northwest of Saadabad Palace. Previously, this building belonged to someone called “AliKhan,” who was one of the great landowners and sold this building to Reza Shah.

During 1923-1929 Reza Shah renovated this building by an architect named “Mirza Jafar Memar Bashi”. The exterior is covered by rare beaded greenery from the province of Zanjan and was therefore called the Green Palace. This palace is a two-storey building with an area of 1203 square meters. The most interesting part of this palace is the mirror hall with a large-format carpet of seventy square meters that the carpet weaver of “Mathad” was called “Amoghli”.

Other Museums in Saadabad Palace :

Today, there are 10 museums in Saadabad Palace open to the public some are as follow:

  1. Nation palace
  2. Green Palace
  3. Fine arts museum: The major part of the paintings in this collection are the oil paintings of Safavid, Afshar, Zand and Qajar periods collected by Mohammad Reza Pahlavi’s last wife, Farah, from an English collectionner called Harold Emmer. The paintings have been arranged on 3 floors: 1) First floor, teahouse painting by contemporary Iranian artists, 2) second floor, various historical periods paintings mentioned above, and 3) Third floor, European works presented to Farah or bought by her.
  4. Behzad museum: This museum is devoted to the miniatures painted by Hossein Behzad (1895-1968) who made a revolution in Iranian painting. Studying European art and being inspired by Kamal-ed-din Behzad and Reza Abbasy, he introduced a new style of miniature on paper, hard paper or fiberboard. This style is purely Iranian, but it has kept on with its contemporary paces and changes of art in universal art schools.
  5. Abkar museum: The miniatures in this museum are works of a 20th century artist called Klara Abkar who had her particular style in painting. Her source of inspiration was the rich Iranian literature and mysticism. Her works take the visitors to a world of spirituality and a poem-like or light-music-like harmony that give everyone’s eyes peace and tranquility.

  1. Mir Emad museum: The main subject of this museum is the most prominent post-Islam Iranian art namely calligraphy. On paper and parchment, there are plenty of various calligraphic styles of writing belonging to 10th to 19th centuries. Mir Emad, himself, the most well known 18th century’s calligrapher, has been introduced by his works. In some cases, some calligraphy-related arts like illumination, painting, etc are exhibited.
  2. Museum of anthropology: The lifestyle and customs of Iranians through the history are displayed from cultural perspective. In a vast area and of two floors, various objects are exhibited like tools for irrigation, agriculture, husbandry, fishing and hunting as well as agricultural documents, clothes, lighting tools and handicrafts.
  3. Water museum: This museum in an exhibition of ancient and traditional techniques and instruments for water supplement and distribution. Various water-related vernacular structures are introduced like water reservoirs and traditional ice houses. Some ancient water dams and royal orders concerning them are presented as well.
  4. Military museum: the objects of the museum are displayed on two floors. The military uniforms of Achaemenids up to the present time are exhibited. The weaponry on display consists of some unsophisticated ones used in the ancient times until the firearms period’s. Part of the history of Iraqi-imposed war against Iran (1980-1988) is also exposed to visitors.

Niavaran Palace Complex is located in the northern part of Tehran, a building that once belonged to the royal family of Qajar, in 9000 square meters area. It consists of several buildings and a museum. The Sahebqaraniyeh Palace from the time of Nasir al-Din Shah of Qajar dynasty is also inside this complex. The beauty of the place and it’s whole energy is mesmerizing; Specially approaching spring time, you could see and feel the growth of life in the environment.

History of Niavaran Palace

The complex traces its origin to a garden in the region of Niavaran, which was used as a summer residence by Fath-Ali Shah (1772-1834) of the Qajar Dynasty. A pavilion was built in the garden by the order of Naser ed Din Shah (1831-1896) of the same dynasty, which was initially referred to as Niavaran, and was later renamed Saheb Qaranie. The pavilion of Ahmad Shah Qajar(1898-1930) was built in the late Qajar period.

During the reign of the Pahlavi Dynasty, a new mansion named Niavaran was built for the imperial family of Mohammad Reza Shah (1919-1980). All of the peripheral buildings of the Saheb Qaranie, with the exception of the Ahmad Shahi Pavilion, were demolished, and the present-day structures were built to the north of the Saheb Qaranie. The Ahmad Shahi Pavilion was then used as an exhibition centre for presents from world leaders to the Iranian imperial monarchs.


Niavaran Palace Today

Presently, it is comprised of five museums (Niavaran Palace Museum, Ahmad Shahi Pavilion, Sahebqaraniyeh Palace, Jahan Nama museum and the private library), and other cultural, historical and natural attractions including the Blue Hall, Private Cinema, Jahan Nama Gallery, and Niavaran Garden.

Architecture of Niavaran Palace

The quadrilateral design of the Niavaran palace and its interior archeological designing is inspired by Iranian archaeology while making use of modern technology. Its decorations have also been inspired by the pre and post Islamic art. The gypsum work has been carried out by Master Abdollahi, the mirror work by Master Ali Asghar, the tile work of the outer part by master Ibrahim Kazempour and Ilia. The building floor is covered by black stone and has an aluminum sliding roof. The internal decoration and furniture of Niavaran palace have been designed and implemented by a French group. In the ground floor of this building there is a great hall in which all the rooms are situated, including a private cinema, dining room, guest room, waiting room and lateral halls as well as the Blue Hall.

In the half floor of this building, the office, conference room, Farah Diba’s secretary’s room, Leila’s bedroom and her retainer’s room. In the stairways there is a room where Mohammad-Reza’s military uniforms and official suits and his medals are kept. In the third floor, Pahlavi’s resting place and his children’s and their retainer’s rooms are situated. These places are all decorated with precious paintings, carpets and gifts received from different countries.

Different Parts in Niavaran Palace:

1. Sahebqaranieh Palace

This is the oldest palace in the compound built at the time of Naser al-Din Shah. He also constructed 40-50 buildings for his wives at the same compound. Later, Mozaffar al-DinShah, his son, stayed  there and made some changes to this building and demolished the harem buildings.

Under 2nd Pahlavy dynasty, this palace went through some more changes and the lower floor was redecorated as a floor for receiving guests and the second floor as Mohammad Reza Shah’s office.

2. Niavaran Private Palace

This palace, compered to Sahebqaranieh, looks modern although it started with an Iranian plan. It was originally planned to be a reception hall for royal family’s guests and VIPs, but during the construction the use of the building was changed to the residence of Mohammad Reza Shah and his family. It was used until the latest moments of Shah’s stay in Iran.

3. Ahmad Shahi Mansion

Originally, this building was constructed during the end of Qajar era to be the sleeping mansion of Ahmad Shah during summer time. Later, under Pahlavies, some annexations  and alterations occurred and it was refurbished as the residence and office or Reza Pahlavy, the crown prince.

4. Jahan Nama Museum

By word, the name of this museum implies the museum where the world is presented. Toward the end of Pahlavy dynasty in Iran, late 1970s, this building was to showcase historic objects or artistic works from all over the world. Some exclusive and unique pieces are on display at this museum on the western side of Sahebqaranieh palace.

Some of those items were presented to Pahlavy Royal family and some had been purchased by them. They include ancient items and contemporary ones from inside and outside Iran.

5. Museum of Royal Library

This building is located at the north east of the Niavaran Compound is a secluded and quiet spot close to the residence of Pahlavy family. The structure consists of two floors as well as a basement. It has been built to be used as a private library. Therefore, it is not supposed to have been following library standards.

There is a piano and some audio devices found at this museum indicating it has been used for playing some music as well. There are some arts and old books from Iranian authors and foreign ones altogether making 23,000 volumes of books.

6. Museum of Royal Clothes &  Fabrics

This building was intended to be used for receiving royal court’s guests. It was built at the northern part of Niavaran palace compound. As royal clothes and fabrics found in the museum were of artistic values, it was decided to allocate this building to a museum of these items.

7. Museum of Royal Family’s Vehicles

The building, which accommodates Pahlavy family’s vehicles and their children’s motorcycles, used to be the parking building for them. Today, after some redecoration and renovation, those vehicles as well as some vehicle models are on display for the visitors who would like to learn more about the lifestyle of Pahlavy family.

8. Inscriptions Garden

This permanent exhibition has been inaugurated to display the copies of 43 rock relieves of Medes, Parthians and Sassanians in various ancient scripts. The copies are on display inside a garden at the eastern side of Niavaran palace compound.


Saea Prak is one of the public Parks of Tehran that has about 12 hectares area and that is located in the Valiasr street (6 regions).The location of this park was tree Planting in 1342 by an engineer Mr. Karim Saea and then it was given to the ministry of the agriculture. Eventually, the idea of designing the park came in the 40s and this park was made with the design of Mr. Hossein Mahjoubi in 1342. Complete the design and construction of the park were from 1342-1352.

History of Saei Park

In 1329 and by the efforts of Mr. Karim Saea, Saea Park was founded in the forest shape. After dyeing of Mr. Saea because of the plane crash this park kept the past shape and its dependency to the Ministry of Agriculture. After the development of Tehran city in 1334, this park was handed over Tehran municipality. Then the parks organization made this park with its equipment as a public park.


The development of Saea park is 120,082 square meters and it has Six inputs. Seeking a development and equipping the park, structures such as Gutter, Ditch, Pond, Waterfall and child’s playground and the part of the park is known as Japanese garden that the Aquatic birds are also keeping there. At the Wildlife part of the Park, the other animals are keeping. Some of these animals are as follow:

Rabbits, Rams, Geese, Swans, Ducks, Squirrels, wild Parrots, and Peacocks.

Vegetation cover of the park is also very diverse and we can through them count some of such as Planetree, Tehran Pine, Shirazi Cypress, Silver Cupressus,

Badbezani Cypress, Tabari Cypress, Laurel, Maple, Elm, Wes Cedar, Magnolia,

Tiger lily, Zhnygv, Hawthorn, Walnuts, and apples.

They made this park in the way that it has difference level and it has no stairs inside the park. The uses stone in this park comes from The Jajroud.

This park that until before regulation called Farah Park is one of the biggest parks of whole Tehran. This park established based on Farah request from the King. Before that this place was Military zone and used for equestrian and Parade and it was called Jalalieh garden. The area of the park is about 35 hectares. In one park different kinds of plants are available such as Sycamore, Acacia, and Pine.

Tehran Laleh park lands were for the Military from the past. This land is famous for the Jalalieh hours riding and it was used for the parade. Army was transferred land instead of claims the ministry of Finance to that ministry. The ministry of the prosperity of housing of time had the mission of that for making the design for this region. The Northern part of the park consider for the Public cultural facilities and the Southern part of the park consider to be only as the Park. The design of this is from the famous French designer Mr. “Zhufeh” and the other collogues of this fields and Iranian designers. Other operations were the municipality responsibility.

Municipality were based on the design continued the job till Farah park established in 1345. After that, in February of 1357, the name of the Park changed to Laleh park.

The first buildings of children’s library in Iran were made in a part of park land of Farah by the Institute for the Intellectual Development of Children and Young Adults.


Geographical location

This park is located within the scope of the 6th municipality of Tehran and in the neighborhood of Amirabad. The park is limited from the North to the Fatemi street, South Keshavarz Blvd., from West to North Kargar Avenue (Amirabad Street), and from the East to the veil street. In the neighborhood of  this park  Laleh Shopping Center, Contemporary Art Museum , Carpet Museum of  Iran and hotel Tulip are located.

Facilities and spaces

The southeastern part of the park is designed like a Japanese garden and it has the fountain and spiral rivulets. In the North streets of the park, you can see landscaping chess tables. Sports fields of  Park contains:

Basketball and volleyball courts in the North part of the park. There are  Center for Puppet Theatre , a library under the Institute for the Intellectual Development of Children and Young Adults and a mosquito in this park .

There are the variety of  sculptures and statues in the park that the celebrated of  them are  for Khayyam and  Biruni.

Khayyam statue is the work of  Hasan Siddiqui that is made in Italia in 1351 to the order of the National Monuments Council . After moved this sculpture to Iran it was transported to Laleh park and it is now in the mood that everyone can see it. After that, it was renovated many times by Fereidun Sediqi.

Taleqani park or Abbas Abad forest park with the Ex Names History of Jahane Kudak park and Davudieh hills is one of the parks in the Tehran that is located in the third region near the  martyr Haqqani metro station on top of the Abbas Abad hills. As this park is located in the height so it has the Overlooking perspective to Whole Tehran. The South of this park has the design of  Spiral shape and it is covered with the Italian oak trees.

Pol-e Tabiat ( Nature Bridge) is one three-storey bridge sidewalk and non-automotive that is located in Abbas Abad. It is also one of the symbols of  Tehran and passes from the width  of  Modares highway and connecting Taleqani park  in East to the Fire and Water park in West. The designer and architect of this park is by Leila Araqian.The study work of  Pol-e Tabiat (Nature bridge) begins in 1388. Pol-e Tabiat  built under reconstruction of Abbas Abad company. This bridge opened in 20th of  Mehr in 1393.

Design of Pol-e Tabiat

In the 1388 one call placed in the medias that were from the Abbas Abad company and the design of this bridge, operate in the form of the match and the operation began at the end of the second six months of 1389. Before the design of this bridge start , the engineers of this company had some kinds of research about this bridge. The experts of this company had initial research conducted on the characteristics of the bridge. The first priority of focusing was on environmental issues in the design of the bridge. Because the bridge is located at the point where all the arteries of the capital nature such as Modarres, ambition, Haqqani and mission from the top of the bridge can be seen in the good view .

Leila Iraqian participated in 1387 in Pol-e Tabiat Design Competition. In 1388 her plan was selected. Pol-e Tabiat was opened in 1393.

The long of this bridge is 300 meter and the weight of the structure of it is 2000 tons. Pol-e Tabiat is the largest non-automotive bridge of  Iran. The bridge is 7,000 square meters and width of it is in the different parts are variable from 6 to 13 meters. The main body of the bridge has been built on a tripod. 14000 pieces of steel in a different dimension, in cutting height of 40 meters above the ground burst and installed   to build it. To build this bridge more than 102 km of welding and 6200 cubic meters of concrete placement is done. The architectural design of the bridge is like Iranian Bridges was inspired by Khajoo  bridge  and it is a tree-like structure with organic design and fully compatible with the environment and nature.

The similar examples of  this bridge can find in national and natural parks of  France, Canada, Netherlands, Belgium, Malaysia and Australia. Tree form of columns and choose the name of  “Tabiat” (nature) for the bridge, both are to emphasize the continuity of green space (in nature) by the bridge. The bridge due to the cutting process, assembly parts, installation, and welding near utilization of space structures in the height of 40 meters is unique in Iran.

To build this bridge use from the special materials and tubes ,and the highest standards and safety factor intended for the bridge and based on the promise of  the chief contractor of the design of the bridge Pol-e Tabiat (Nature bridge) of the time of operation will be for 100 years old and even resistant on the face of earthquakes above 7 on the Richter scale accidents and natural disasters.

Pol-e Tabiat over 3 floors, 1450 first floor, 2870  second floor and 571 square meters is the third floor. They will also be intended  to make the third storey attractive as a tourist destination by made a variety of exhibition spaces , coffee shops , Gallery and  diverse restaurants. The constructor of the bridge pays attention to prediction pause on the bridge and appropriate urban furniture design, consistent with the characteristics of the instrument of the bridge .

The Managing Producer of the bridge said that this bridge is the new symbol of Tehran.


During the bridge, some spaces with cultural practices, recreation, and tourism parts were providing that from all of them we can note to the coffee shop, restaurant, cafe and gallery spaces that provides beautiful scenery in the curvature of the body.


Pol-e Tabiat is parts of a project of  build seven pedestrians in the Abbas abad lands.

This bridge contains Silk bridges and it is not too distant future,and it can be cited as a highlight of Tehran.


This bridge made a situation for the architecture  Leila Araqian to be known  , at the international level. Nature bridge is the first choice of people and in 5 Choose of  top 300 leading  architects in urban architecture competition (architizer awards A + ) in 2015. Pol-e Tabiat was recognized as the top Iran’s steel structure in 1392. The International golden brick prize gave to Pol-e Tabiat (Nature Bridge) in 1393.

Immerse yourself in the world of luxury and splendor at Tehran National Jewelry Museum, which holds one of the finest collections of jewelry once worn and used by members of Persian royal dynasties. The Tehran National Jewelry Museum is housed within the Central Bank of the Islamic Republic of Iran, at the heart of the City of Tehran. It is the most astonishing, astounding and awe-inspiring museum you have ever been to.

The incomparable “Treasury of the National Jewels”, which is open to public, is a collection of the most expensive jewels of the world, collected over centuries.
Every piece of this collection is a reflection of the tumultuous history of this great nation, and artistry of the residents of this land. Each piece recalls memories of bitter-sweet victories and defeats, of the pride and arrogance of rulers who were powerful or weak.

Treasury of National Jewels in 1962 (white building)

How much is the value of this collection in Tehran National Jewelry Museum ?

No one knows the answer to this question. Because this collection contains gems that are unique in the world. The answer to this question can be as the following: from the artistic viewpoint, historical background and containing incomparable jewels, the Tehran National Jewelry Museum is on a level that even the most expert evaluators of the world have not been able to calculate the price of this collection.

This Treasury, on one hand, depicts the culture and civilization of the Iranian people who have had an adventurous past, and on the other hand, repeats the silent tears of oppressed people who worked hard and instead the rulers, could show off their arrogance and power with their gold and jewels.

Our intention in presenting these jewels in Tehran National Jewelry Museum is to get you more acquainted with the rich culture and civilization of Iran. And to learn from history the fate of those who pursue power and hoard wealth. For this end we present this rich collection, which we have inherited and hope to preserve and pass on richer to our inheritors.

Treasury of National Jewels in 1962 (white building)
Treasury of National Jewels in 1962 (white building)

The value of the objects in the Tehran National Jewelry Museum is not limited to their economic value, but is also a reflection of the creativity and taste of Iranian craftsmen and artist over the different eras of history, and represents the artistic and cultural heritage of the vast country on Iran.
These jewels and rarities were decorations for the rulers during the past eras, and often showed the glory and extravagance of their courts, as well as their power and wealth.

Don’t Miss…

Don’t miss the highlights of the collection: the largest uncut pink diamond in the world, the Peacock Throne, and the 1869 globe fully encrusted with precious stones – emeralds for the oceans, rubies for the land, and diamonds for the countries of Iran, Great Britain, and France. Most of the pieces in the collection changed hands many times since the 16th century when Safavid Shahs scavenged Europe, Middle East, and India looking for these exquisite gems. Although diminished from what it once was, the current collection is still so vast and valuable that it serves as a reserve for the Iranian currency, the Rial.